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Stress is a biologically significant factor shown to influence synaptic plasticity and memory functioning in the hippocampus. This study examined the role of the amygdala, a brain structure implicated in coordinating stress behaviors and modulating memory consolidation, in mediating stress effects on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory in(More)
Mammalian mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases include extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 subgroups. These MAP kinase isoforms are activated by dual phosphorylation on threonine and tyrosine. Two human MAP kinase kinases (MKK3 and MKK4) were cloned that phosphorylate and activate p38 MAP(More)
Mammalian cells respond to endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by activation of protein kinase cascades that lead to new gene expression. A protein kinase, p38, that was tyrosine phosphorylated in response to LPS, was cloned. The p38 enzyme and the product of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HOG1 gene, which are both members of the mitogen-activated protein(More)
Big MAP kinase 1 (BMK1), also known as ERK5, is a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase member whose biological role is largely undefined. We have shown previously that the activity of BMK1 in rat smooth muscle cells is up-regulated by oxidants. Here, we describe a constitutively active form of the MAP kinase kinase, MEK5(D), which selectively activates(More)
Cambrian fossil-Lagerstätten (sites of exceptional fossil preservation), such as those from Chengjiang (Lower Cambrian) and the Burgess Shale (Middle Cambrian), provide our best window into the Cambrian 'explosion'. Such faunas are known from about 40 localities, and have yielded a widely disparate series of taxa ranging from ctenophores to agnathan fish.(More)
In humans, ten Toll-like receptor (TLR) paralogues sense molecular components of microbes, initiating the production of cytokine mediators that create the inflammatory response. Using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, we induced a germline mutation called Lps2, which abolishes cytokine responses to double-stranded RNA and severely impairs responses to the endotoxin(More)
p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activities were significantly increased in mouse hearts after chronic transverse aortic constriction, coincident with the onset of ventricular hypertrophy. Infection of cardiomyocytes with adenoviral vectors expressing upstream activators for the p38 kinases, activated mutants of MAP kinase kinase 3b(E) (MKK3bE)(More)
Agnathan fish hold a key position in vertebrate evolution, especially regarding the origin of the head and neural-crest-derived tissue. In contrast to amphioxus, lampreys and other vertebrates possess a complex brain and placodes that contribute to well-developed eyes, as well as auditory and olfactory systems. These sensory sytems were arguably a trigger(More)
BACKGROUND Co-occurrence of Parkinson disease (PD) and melanoma has been reported in numerous studies. If this was due to common genetic mechanisms, a positive family history of melanoma would be associated with an excessive PD risk, independent of environmental risk factors for PD. METHODS We prospectively examined associations between a family history(More)