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Evidence is presented to show a strong and long-lasting analgesic effect after injection of dynorphin into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord of the rat. Calculating on a molar basis dynorphin was 6-10 times more potent than morphine and 65-100 times more potent than morphiceptin, the specific mu receptor agonist. Dynorphin analgesia was completely(More)
1. The present study was designed to investigate further the effects of the newly discovered orphanin FQ (OFQ)-the endogenous ligand for the orphan opioid receptor (called, e.g., ORL, and LC132)-on pain modulation in the rat. We used the tail-flick assay as a nociceptive index. 2. When injected into a cerebral ventricle, OFQ (4 fmol-10 nmol) has no effect(More)
p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activities were significantly increased in mouse hearts after chronic transverse aortic constriction, coincident with the onset of ventricular hypertrophy. Infection of cardiomyocytes with adenoviral vectors expressing upstream activators for the p38 kinases, activated mutants of MAP kinase kinase 3b(E) (MKK3bE)(More)
Recent studies suggest that the novel opioid peptide orphanin FQ (OFQ) is involved in pain modulation. We found that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of OFQ in the rat produced a dose-dependent antagonism of the analgesia induced by 100 Hz electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation as measured in the radiant heat tail-flick assay. Antisense(More)
To construct a model for the relapse of drug use, we investigated the reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. After the morphine CPP paradigm was established, rats were left extinguishing for 9 days, then exposed to 15 min of random foot shock or s.c. drug priming with different doses of morphine or amphetamine,(More)
The analgesic effect induced by 2/15 Hz electroacupuncture as shown by the increase in tail flick latency decreased steadily as electroacupuncture stimulation was given continuously for 6 h, showing the development of tolerance to electroacupuncture analgesia. These rats were then given an intrathecal (i.t.) injection of one of the following opioid(More)
Previous findings from this laboratory with the intracerebral microinjection technique suggested that the periaqueductal gray (PAG), nucleus accumbens, and habenula might constitute a unidirectional loop to play their roles in pain modulation. In the present study we demonstrate that intra-habenular injection of naloxone antagonizes the analgesia elicited(More)
Mechanical factors are considered to play a dominant role in low back problems. Various spinal structures, including muscles, act in unison to resist the external load, including the body segments. An estimation of the forces in these requires a knowledge of the orientation, location, and area of cross-section of the muscles to complete the information for(More)
Previous studies have shown a possible connection between the nucleus raphe dorsalis (NRD) and the amygdala in mediating opioid analgesia. In the present study, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) retrograde tracing was used in combination with serotonin (5-HT) immunocytochemical staining in an attempt to search for serotonergic projections from the NRD to the(More)