Learn More
Berberine has been shown to have antidiabetic properties, although its mode of action is not known. Here, we have investigated the metabolic effects of berberine in two animal models of insulin resistance and in insulin-responsive cell lines. Berberine reduced body weight and caused a significant improvement in glucose tolerance without altering food intake(More)
OBJECTIVE Berberine (BBR) activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and improves insulin sensitivity in rodent models of insulin resistance. We investigated the mechanism of activation of AMPK by BBR and explored whether derivatization of BBR could improve its in vivo efficacy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS AMPK phosphorylation was examined in L6(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been implicated in hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. The present study investigated their roles in the development of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance during de novo lipogenesis (DNL) compared to extrahepatic lipid oversupply. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high(More)
Drugs that improve chronic hyperglycemia independently of insulin signaling or reduction of adiposity or dietary fat intake may be highly desirable. Ad36, a human adenovirus, promotes glucose uptake in vitro independently of adiposity or proximal insulin signaling. We tested the ability of Ad36 to improve glycemic control in vivo and determined if the(More)
Exercise improves insulin sensitivity. As AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in muscle metabolism during exercise, we investigated the effects of the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) on insulin action in insulin-resistant high-fat-fed (HF) rats. Rats received a subcutaneous injection of(More)
Thiazolidinediones lower lipids, but it is unclear whether this is essential for their insulin-sensitizing action. We investigated relationships between lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitizing actions of a thiazolidinedione. Normal rats were pretreated with or without Pioglitazone (Pio, 3 mg/kg.d) for 2 wk. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha and PPARgamma agonists lower lipid accumulation in muscle and liver by different mechanisms. We investigated whether benefits could be achieved on insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism by the dual PPARalpha/gamma agonist ragaglitazar in high fat-fed rats. Ragaglitazar completely eliminated high-fat(More)
Metformin reduces the incidence of progression to type 2 diabetes in humans with obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. We used an animal model to investigate whether metformin could prevent acute lipid-induced insulin resistance and the mechanisms involved. Metformin or vehicle was administered to rats daily for 1 week. Rats were studied basally, after(More)
Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is increased in white but not red muscle of insulin-resistant high-fat-fed (HF) rats after administration of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR). To investigate whether a lesser AICAR effect on glucose uptake in red muscle was offset by a greater(More)
We recently showed that bitter melon-derived triterpenoids (BMTs) activate AMPK and increase GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane in vitro, and improve glucose disposal in insulin resistant models in vivo. Here we interrogated the mechanism by which these novel compounds activate AMPK, a leading anti-diabetic drug target. BMTs did not activate AMPK(More)