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PURPOSE To evaluate visual blur as a mechanism for modulating eye shape. METHODS Chicks wore a unilateral full goggle or one of several goggles modified with apertures. After 2 weeks, eyes were measured with refractometry, ultrasound, and calipers, and three retinal regions were assayed for dopamine and DOPAC (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid). RESULTS(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that lithium has a neuroprotective effect against brain ischemia. Whether this effect is mediated by hippocampal neurogenesis remains unknown. The ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway plays an essential role in regulating neurogenesis. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether lithium regulates(More)
Asynchronous parallel optimization received substantial successes and extensive attention recently. One of core theoretical questions is how much speedup (or benefit) the asynchronous parallelization can bring to us. This paper provides a comprehensive and generic analysis to study the speedup property for a broad range of asynchronous parallel stochastic(More)
OBJECTIVE The efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, added to ongoing metformin therapy, were assessed in patients with type 2 diabetes who had inadequate glycemic control (HbA(1c) [A1C] >or=7 and <or=10%) with metformin alone. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS After a screening diet/exercise run-in period, a metformin dose(More)
It has been suggested that ambient lighting at night influences eye growth and might play a causal role in human myopia. To test this hypothesis, we reared newly hatched chicks under 12 hr light-dark or light-dim cycles with a light phase intensity of 1500 microW/cm(2) and variable dim phase intensities between 0.01 and 500 microW/cm(2). Other chicks were(More)
The nonmuscle myosin II NMY-2 is required for cytokinesis as well as for the establishment of zygote asymmetry during embryogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we describe two conditional nmy-2 alleles that rapidly and reversibly inactivate the protein. We show that NMY-2 has late-cell-cycle roles in maintaining embryonic asymmetries and is also(More)
BACKGROUND We have previously demonstrated that BEX2 is differentially expressed in breast tumors and has a significant role in promoting cell survival and growth in breast cancer cells. BEX2 expression protects breast cancer cells against mitochondrial apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest. In this study we investigated the transcriptional regulation of BEX2(More)
PURPOSE To learn whether gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) participates in retinal mechanisms that influence refractive development. METHODS White leghorn chicks, some of which wore a unilateral goggle to induce myopia, received daily intravitreal injections of agonists or antagonists to the major GABA receptor subtypes. Eyes were studied with refractometry,(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that lead (Pb) produces impairments partly through oxidative stress. Though many researchers have investigated protective effect of some antioxidant nutrients against Pb toxicity, little information is available about the effect of antioxidants on Pb-induced impairment of synaptic plasticity. Quercetin, a strong antioxidant and(More)
Cellular accumulation of DNA damage has been widely implicated in cellular senescence, aging, and premature aging. In Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and restrictive dermopathy (RD), premature aging is linked to accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which results in genome instability. However, how DSBs accumulate in cells despite the(More)