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OBJECTIVE The efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, added to ongoing metformin therapy, were assessed in patients with type 2 diabetes who had inadequate glycemic control (HbA(1c) [A1C] >or=7 and <or=10%) with metformin alone. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS After a screening diet/exercise run-in period, a metformin dose(More)
• Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyzes phospholipids to produce phosphatidic acid (PA) and a head group, and is involved in the response to various environmental stresses, including salinity. Here, we determined the roles of PLDα and PA in the mediation of salt (NaCl)-stress signaling through the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MPK) in(More)
Angiogenesis is important for the growth of solid tumors. The breaking of the immune tolerance against the molecule associated with angiogenesis should be a useful approach for cancer therapy. However, the immunity to self-molecules is difficult to elicit by a vaccine based on autologous or syngeneic molecules due to immune tolerance. Basic fibroblast(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family, in particular MMP-2, may play a key role in angiogenesis and tumor growth. It is conceivable that the breaking of immune tolerance of MMP-2 should be a useful approach to cancer therapy by active immunity. To test this concept, we constructed a plasmid DNA encoding chicken homologous MMP-2 (c-MMP-2) and control(More)
PURPOSE To learn whether gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) participates in retinal mechanisms that influence refractive development. METHODS White leghorn chicks, some of which wore a unilateral goggle to induce myopia, received daily intravitreal injections of agonists or antagonists to the major GABA receptor subtypes. Eyes were studied with refractometry,(More)
PURPOSE Tie-2 is an endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinase known to play a key role in tumor angiogenesis. The present study explores the feasibility of immunotherapy of tumors by using a protein vaccine based on chicken Tie-2 as a model antigen to break the immune tolerance against Tie-2 in a cross-reaction between the xenogeneic homologous and(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that lithium has a neuroprotective effect against brain ischemia. Whether this effect is mediated by hippocampal neurogenesis remains unknown. The ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway plays an essential role in regulating neurogenesis. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether lithium regulates(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the role of early or up-front radiotherapy (RT), the optimal RT dose required to achieve appropriate treatment outcome and prognostic factors for patients with localized extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type, in the upper aerodigestive tract. METHODS AND MATERIALS Eighty-two patients were reviewed. Eight patients were treated(More)
PURPOSE Degradation of engulfed material is primarily mediated by lysosomal enzymes that function optimally within a narrow range of acidic pH values. RPE cells are responsible for daily degradation of photoreceptor outer segments and are thus particularly susceptible to perturbations in lysosomal pH. The authors hypothesized that elevated lysosomal pH(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate visual blur as a mechanism for modulating eye shape. METHODS Chicks wore a unilateral full goggle or one of several goggles modified with apertures. After 2 weeks, eyes were measured with refractometry, ultrasound, and calipers, and three retinal regions were assayed for dopamine and DOPAC (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid). RESULTS(More)