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Peroxisomes are highly metabolic, autonomously replicating organelles that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a by-product of fatty acid β-oxidation. Consequently, cells must maintain peroxisome homeostasis, or risk pathologies associated with too few peroxisomes, such as peroxisome biogenesis disorders, or too many peroxisomes, inducing oxidative(More)
Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) stimulation leads to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/AP-1 and Ca2+–nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathways in osteoclastogenesis. Targeting these pathways has been an encouraging strategy for bone-related diseases, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis.(More)
Store-operated Ca(2+) entry mediated by STIM1 and ORAI1 constitutes one of the major Ca(2+) entry routes in mammalian cells. The molecular choreography of STIM1-ORAI1 coupling is initiated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) store depletion with subsequent oligomerization of the STIM1 ER-luminal domain, followed by its redistribution towards the plasma(More)
Plumbagin (PL), a herbal compound derived from roots of the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica, has been shown to have immunosuppressive properties. Present report describes that PL is a potent novel agent in control of encephalitogenic T cell responses and amelioration of mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), through down-regulation of(More)
Specialized junctional sites that connect the plasma membrane (PM) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) play critical roles in controlling lipid metabolism and Ca 2+ signaling 1–4. Store operated Ca 2+ entry mediated by dynamic STIM1-ORAI1 coupling represents a classical molecular event occurring at ER-PM junctions, but the protein composition and how(More)
The application of current channelrhodopsin-based optogenetic tools is limited by the lack of strict ion selectivity and the inability to extend the spectra sensitivity into the near-infrared (NIR) tissue transmissible range. Here we present an NIR-stimulable optogenetic platform (termed 'Opto-CRAC') that selectively and remotely controls Ca(2+)(More)
The stromal interaction molecule (STIM)-ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator (ORAI) pathway controls store-dependent calcium entry, a major mechanism of physiological calcium signaling in mammalian cells. The core elements of the pathway are the regulatory protein STIM1, located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, the calcium channel(More)
Peroxisomes are autonomously replicating and highly metabolic organelles necessary for β-oxidation of fatty acids, a process that generates large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Maintaining a balance between biogenesis and degradation of peroxisomes is essential to maintain cellular redox balance, but how cells do this has remained somewhat of a(More)
Abbreviations: MS: multiple sclerosis EAE: Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis BA: Betulinic acid NF-κB: nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells STAT: Signal transducer and activator of transcription CNS: central nervous system ROR-γt: Retinoid orphan receptor γt SWH: Sambucus williamsii Hance i.p.:intraperitoneally SD: standard(More)
CD4+ T helper cells, especially T helper 17 (TH17) cells, combined with immune regulatory network dysfunction, play key roles in autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). Betulinic acid (BA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid, has been reported to be involved in anti-inflammation, in particular having an inhibitory effect on proinflammatory(More)