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Peroxisomes are highly metabolic, autonomously replicating organelles that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a by-product of fatty acid β-oxidation. Consequently, cells must maintain peroxisome homeostasis, or risk pathologies associated with too few peroxisomes, such as peroxisome biogenesis disorders, or too many peroxisomes, inducing oxidative(More)
Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) stimulation leads to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/AP-1 and Ca2+–nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathways in osteoclastogenesis. Targeting these pathways has been an encouraging strategy for bone-related diseases, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis.(More)
Store-operated Ca(2+) entry mediated by STIM1 and ORAI1 constitutes one of the major Ca(2+) entry routes in mammalian cells. The molecular choreography of STIM1-ORAI1 coupling is initiated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) store depletion with subsequent oligomerization of the STIM1 ER-luminal domain, followed by its redistribution towards the plasma(More)
Plumbagin (PL), a herbal compound derived from roots of the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica, has been shown to have immunosuppressive properties. Present report describes that PL is a potent novel agent in control of encephalitogenic T cell responses and amelioration of mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), through down-regulation of(More)
Specialized junctional sites that connect the plasma membrane (PM) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) play critical roles in controlling lipid metabolism and Ca(2+) signalling. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry mediated by dynamic STIM1-ORAI1 coupling represents a classical molecular event occurring at ER-PM junctions, but the protein composition and how previously(More)
Peroxisomes are autonomously replicating and highly metabolic organelles necessary for β-oxidation of fatty acids, a process that generates large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Maintaining a balance between biogenesis and degradation of peroxisomes is essential to maintain cellular redox balance, but how cells do this has remained somewhat of a(More)
The stromal interaction molecule (STIM)-ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator (ORAI) pathway controls store-dependent calcium entry, a major mechanism of physiological calcium signaling in mammalian cells. The core elements of the pathway are the regulatory protein STIM1, located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, the calcium channel(More)
CD4+ T helper cells, especially T helper 17 (TH17) cells, combined with immune regulatory network dysfunction, play key roles in autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). Betulinic acid (BA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid, has been reported to be involved in anti-inflammation, in particular having an inhibitory effect on proinflammatory(More)
Abbreviations: MS: multiple sclerosis EAE: Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis BA: Betulinic acid NF-κB: nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells STAT: Signal transducer and activator of transcription CNS: central nervous system ROR-γt: Retinoid orphan receptor γt SWH: Sambucus williamsii Hance i.p.:intraperitoneally SD: standard(More)
To solve the conservatism of acceptance criteria in ASCE/SEI 41 provisions, a new concept of component performance is put forward and an alternative method based on the statistical distribution of component performance levels to evaluate structural performance level is proposed. Independent component performance levels are redefined in detail and component(More)