beta1 integrins play a crucial role as cytoskeletal anchorage proteins. In this study, the coupling of the cytoskeleton and intracellular signaling pathways was investigated in beta1 integrin deficient (-/-) embryonic stem cells. Muscarinic inhibition of the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) and activation of the acetylcholine-activated K+ current (IK,ACh) was… (More)
In game theory and artificial intelligence, decision making models often involve maximizing expected utility, which does not respect ordinal invariance. In this paper, the author discusses the possibility of preserving ordinal invariance and still making a rational decision under uncertainty.