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Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptors (AMPARs) mediate the majority of fast excitation in the CNS. Receptors lacking GluR2 exhibit inward rectification and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) due to polyamine (PA)-dependent block and unblock, respectively. In this study, we tested whether rectification and PPF in immature, but not(More)
Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels are present in a variety of cells. However, very little is known about the ion channels that account for mechanical sensitivity in sensory neurons. We identified the two most frequently encountered but distinct types of MS channels in 1390 of 2962 membrane patches tested in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons. The two MS(More)
AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate the bulk of fast synaptic excitation in the CNS. We have recently shown that AMPAR-dependent synaptic transmission in immature neocortical pyramidal neurons is mediated by GluR2-deficient receptors that can be modulated by intra- or extracellular polyamines (PAs). Phosphorylation of AMPARs, e.g. by PKC, can lead to enhanced(More)
Vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1), a ligand-gated ion channel activated by vanilloids, acid, and heat, is a molecular detector that integrates multiple modes of pain. Although the function and the biophysical properties of the channel are now known, the regions of VR1 that recognize ligands are largely unknown. By the stepwise deletion of VR1 and by chimera(More)
Capsaicin causes pain by activating VR1, a cloned capsaicin receptor, in sensory neurons. After the initial excitatory responses, capsaicin produces prolonged analgesia, presumably because of the neurotoxic effect that leads to the death of sensory neurons. However, the mechanism underlying capsaicin-induced cell death of sensory neurons is not known. Here(More)
Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endothelial cell-secreted protein that limits the recruitment of neutrophils by antagonizing the interaction between the LFA-1 integrin on neutrophils and the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 on endothelial cells. Mice with genetic or age-associated Del-1 deficiency exhibit increased neutrophil(More)
OBJECTIVE Sperm must be properly prepared in in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer (ET) programs in order to control the fertilization rate and ensure that embryos are of high quality and have appropriate developmental abilities. The objective of this study was to determine the most optimal sperm preparation method for IVF. METHODS Patients less(More)
The characteristics of the T cell response to the members of oral flora are poorly understood. We characterized the antibody and T cell responses to FadA and Td92, adhesins from Fusobacterium nucleatum, an oral commensal, and Treponema denticola, a periodontal pathogen, respectively. Peripheral blood and saliva were obtained from healthy individuals and(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents approximately 80% of all lung cancers. Unfortunately, at their time of diagnosis, most patients have advanced to unresectable disease with a very poor prognosis. The oriental herbal medicine HangAm-Plus(HAP) has been developed for antitumor purposes, and several previous studies have(More)