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BACKGROUND Despite clinical and neuropsychological similarities between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), recent studies have demonstrated that structural and pathological changes are more severe in DLB than in PDD. METHODS 19 patients with probable PDD and 18 patients with probable DLB who had a similar overall(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), and along with PD with dementia (PDD), the concept of mild cognitive impairment in PD (PD-MCI) has been introduced. METHODS To identify structural candidates according to cognitive status in PD, we compared gray matter (GM) density across PD-intact cognition (PD-IC, n = 23), PD-MCI (n(More)
Despite clinical and neuropsychological similarities between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), recent studies have demonstrated that structural and pathological changes are more severe in DLB than in PDD. We used voxel-based morphometry using a 3-T MRI scanner to compare gray and white matter densities in 20 patients(More)
Although the functional importance of the hypothalamus has been demonstrated throughout vertebrates, the mechanisms controlling neurogenesis in this forebrain structure are poorly understood. We report that canonical Wnt signaling acts through Lef1 to regulate neurogenesis in the zebrafish hypothalamus. We show that Lef1 is required for proneural and(More)
Joubert syndrome (JBTS), related disorders (JSRDs) and Meckel syndrome (MKS) are ciliopathies. We now report that MKS2 and CORS2 (JBTS2) loci are allelic and caused by mutations in TMEM216, which encodes an uncharacterized tetraspan transmembrane protein. Individuals with CORS2 frequently had nephronophthisis and polydactyly, and two affected individuals(More)
Ample evidence has suggested that individuals with subjective memory complaints are at a higher risk for cognitive decline. Nevertheless, the significance of subjective memory complaints in Parkinson’s disease has not been studied until now. We investigated whether the patterns of cognitive profiles and gray matter density differed in cognitively normal(More)
BACKGROUND Visual hallucinations (VH), which are common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), lead to increased disability and are a significant predictor of the development of dementia. However, the neuroanatomical basis for VH in non-demented PD patients remains controversial. METHODS A total of 110 patients with PD were classified into PD with VH(More)
Presenilin 1 (PS1) plays a pivotal role in Notch signaling and the intracellular metabolism of the amyloid beta-protein. To understand intracellular signaling events downstream of PS1, we investigated in this study the action of PS1 on mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Overexpressed PS1 suppressed the stress-induced stimulation of stress-activated(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been found to have therapeutic effects in patients with dementia, but DBS mechanisms remain elusive. To provide evidence for the effectiveness of DBS as a treatment for dementia, we performed DBS in a rat model of dementia with intracerebroventricular administration of 192 IgG-saporins. We utilized four groups of rats, group(More)
Tubulin glutamylation is a post-translational modification that occurs predominantly in the ciliary axoneme and has been suggested to be important for ciliary function. However, its relationship to disorders of the primary cilium, termed ciliopathies, has not been explored. Here we mapped a new locus for Joubert syndrome (JBTS), which we have designated as(More)