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Primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved cellular organelles that organize diverse signalling pathways. Defects in the formation or function of primary cilia are associated with a spectrum of human diseases and developmental abnormalities. Genetic screens in model organisms have discovered core machineries of cilium assembly and maintenance. However,(More)
Although the functional importance of the hypothalamus has been demonstrated throughout vertebrates, the mechanisms controlling neurogenesis in this forebrain structure are poorly understood. We report that canonical Wnt signaling acts through Lef1 to regulate neurogenesis in the zebrafish hypothalamus. We show that Lef1 is required for proneural and(More)
Understanding how a small brain region, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), can synchronize the body's circadian rhythms is an ongoing research area. This important time-keeping system requires a complex suite of peptide hormones and transmitters that remain incompletely characterized. Here, capillary liquid chromatography and FTMS have been coupled with(More)
The major components of tea may be significantly influenced according to the type of fermentation, and consequently the effects of different teas will differ. We examined whether green tea fermented with Aquilariae Lignum (fGT) shows a stronger anti-diabetic effect than unfermented green tea (GT) on mice with type 2 diabetes. To evaluate the anti-obesity(More)
This preliminary study aimed to determine if adding mirtazapine to risperidone might improve negative and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. In an 8-week, double-blind clinical trial, we randomly assigned 21 stabilized outpatients with schizophrenia undergoing risperidone treatment to adjunctive treatment with either mirtazapine or a placebo. The(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been found to have therapeutic effects in patients with dementia, but DBS mechanisms remain elusive. To provide evidence for the effectiveness of DBS as a treatment for dementia, we performed DBS in a rat model of dementia with intracerebroventricular administration of 192 IgG-saporins. We utilized four groups of rats, group(More)
BACKGROUND To investigate clinical features of infectious endophthalmitis over five years in a South Korean population. METHODS Medical records of consecutive patients diagnosed with infectious endophthalmitis at eight institutions located in Gyeongsangnam-do and Pusan city between January 1, 2004 and July 31, 2010 were reviewed. RESULTS A total of 197(More)
Tubulin glutamylation is a post-translational modification that occurs predominantly in the ciliary axoneme and has been suggested to be important for ciliary function. However, its relationship to disorders of the primary cilium, termed ciliopathies, has not been explored. Here we mapped a new locus for Joubert syndrome (JBTS), which we have designated as(More)
Joubert syndrome (JBTS), related disorders (JSRDs) and Meckel syndrome (MKS) are ciliopathies. We now report that MKS2 and CORS2 (JBTS2) loci are allelic and caused by mutations in TMEM216, which encodes an uncharacterized tetraspan transmembrane protein. Individuals with CORS2 frequently had nephronophthisis and polydactyly, and two affected individuals(More)
A full description of the human proteome relies on the challenging task of detecting mature and changing forms of protein molecules in the body. Large-scale proteome analysis has routinely involved digesting intact proteins followed by inferred protein identification using mass spectrometry. This 'bottom-up' process affords a high number of identifications(More)