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Primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved cellular organelles that organize diverse signalling pathways. Defects in the formation or function of primary cilia are associated with a spectrum of human diseases and developmental abnormalities. Genetic screens in model organisms have discovered core machineries of cilium assembly and maintenance. However,(More)
Joubert syndrome (JBTS), related disorders (JSRDs) and Meckel syndrome (MKS) are ciliopathies. We now report that MKS2 and CORS2 (JBTS2) loci are allelic and caused by mutations in TMEM216, which encodes an uncharacterized tetraspan transmembrane protein. Individuals with CORS2 frequently had nephronophthisis and polydactyly, and two affected individuals(More)
Although the functional importance of the hypothalamus has been demonstrated throughout vertebrates, the mechanisms controlling neurogenesis in this forebrain structure are poorly understood. We report that canonical Wnt signaling acts through Lef1 to regulate neurogenesis in the zebrafish hypothalamus. We show that Lef1 is required for proneural and(More)
Understanding how a small brain region, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), can synchronize the body's circadian rhythms is an ongoing research area. This important time-keeping system requires a complex suite of peptide hormones and transmitters that remain incompletely characterized. Here, capillary liquid chromatography and FTMS have been coupled with(More)
BACKGROUND Visual hallucinations (VH), which are common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), lead to increased disability and are a significant predictor of the development of dementia. However, the neuroanatomical basis for VH in non-demented PD patients remains controversial. METHODS A total of 110 patients with PD were classified into PD with VH(More)
This preliminary study aimed to determine if adding mirtazapine to risperidone might improve negative and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. In an 8-week, double-blind clinical trial, we randomly assigned 21 stabilized outpatients with schizophrenia undergoing risperidone treatment to adjunctive treatment with either mirtazapine or a placebo. The(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been found to have therapeutic effects in patients with dementia, but DBS mechanisms remain elusive. To provide evidence for the effectiveness of DBS as a treatment for dementia, we performed DBS in a rat model of dementia with intracerebroventricular administration of 192 IgG-saporins. We utilized four groups of rats, group(More)
Presenilin 1 (PS1) plays a pivotal role in Notch signaling and the intracellular metabolism of the amyloid beta-protein. To understand intracellular signaling events downstream of PS1, we investigated in this study the action of PS1 on mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Overexpressed PS1 suppressed the stress-induced stimulation of stress-activated(More)
Ample evidence has suggested that individuals with subjective memory complaints are at a higher risk for cognitive decline. Nevertheless, the significance of subjective memory complaints in Parkinson’s disease has not been studied until now. We investigated whether the patterns of cognitive profiles and gray matter density differed in cognitively normal(More)
A full description of the human proteome relies on the challenging task of detecting mature and changing forms of protein molecules in the body. Large-scale proteome analysis has routinely involved digesting intact proteins followed by inferred protein identification using mass spectrometry. This 'bottom-up' process affords a high number of identifications(More)