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Atypical antipsychotics have greatly enhanced the treatment of schizophrenia. The mechanisms underlying the effectiveness and adverse effects of these drugs are, to date, not sufficiently explained. This article summarises the hypothetical mechanisms of action of atypical antipsychotics with respect to the neurobiology of schizophrenia.When considering(More)
OBJECTIVES Ketamine and other NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) antagonists produce fast-acting antidepressant-like effects, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Furthermore, high affinity NMDA antagonists such as ketamine are associated with psychotomimetic effects. To date the link between the antidepressant and psychotomimetic effects of ketamine has(More)
OBJECTIVE Toxoplasmosis is a lifelong parasitic disease that appears to be associated to schizophrenia. However, no distinguishing attributes in Toxoplasma-infected schizophrenia patients have been described as yet. METHOD We searched for differences in symptom profile, cognitive performance and treatment response between 194 Toxoplasma-free and 57(More)
BACKGROUND The goal of our study is to assess whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) would facilitate the effect of antidepressant in OCD patients. METHOD The aim of the randomized, double-blind, sham controlled study was to compare the 2 and 4 week efficacy of the 10 sessions rTMS with sham rTMS in serotonin reuptake inhibitor resistant OCD(More)
Dizocilpine (MK-801; 0.3 mg/kg i.p.)-induced disruption in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI) can be preferentially restored by "atypical" antipsychotics. In contrast, some findings indicate that not all of the "atypical" antipsychotics, such as clozapine and risperidone, are effective in restoring the NMDA antagonist-induced(More)
We investigated the role of serotonin in cognitive activation of the frontal cortex. The serotonergic system was affected by the administration of an amino acids mixture without tryptophan (tryptophan depletion). In a placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study with 20 healthy volunteers, we tested the hypothesis that a tryptophan (serotonin) decrease(More)
The research of the glutamatergic system in schizophrenia has advanced with the use of non-competitive antagonists of glutamate NMDA receptors (phencyclidine, ketamine, and dizocilpine), which change both human and animal behaviour and induce schizophrenia-like manifestations. Models based on both acute and chronic administration of these substances in(More)
BACKGROUND The goal of our study was to identify brain structures in patients with panic disorder (PD) that show changes in 18FDG PET during the treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or antidepressants. METHOD Twelve patients suffering from panic disorder were studied with [18F]-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET)(More)
Psilocybin, a psychoactive alkaloid contained in hallucinogenic mushrooms, is nowadays given a lot of attention in the scientific community as a research tool for modeling psychosis as well as due to its potential therapeutic effects. However, it is also a very popular and frequently abused natural hallucinogen. This review summarizes all the past and(More)
RATIONALE Mescaline is a nonselective serotonin receptor agonist. It has relatively delayed onset of action and prolonged duration. Mescaline attenuates various behavioral parameters in rats; however, no information is available about its pharmacokinetics in rats and its relation to the behavioral changes produced by the drug. OBJECTIVES The present study(More)