Learn More
Leishmania parasites are transmitted to their vertebrate hosts by infected phlebotomine sand fly bites. Sand fly saliva is known to enhance Leishmania infection, while immunity to the saliva protects against infection as determined by coinoculation of parasites with vector salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) or by infected sand fly bites (Kamhawi, S., Y.(More)
We have developed a model of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major that seeks to mimic the natural conditions of infection. 1,000 metacyclic promastigotes were coinoculated with a salivary gland sonicate (SGS) obtained from a natural vector, Phlebotomus papatasii, into the ear dermis of naive mice or of mice preexposed to SGS. The studies reveal a(More)
Toxoplasma gondii releases factors that potently stimulate production of interleukin-12 (IL-12) from dendritic cells (DCs). Purification of this activity showed that cyclophilin-18 (C-18) was its principal component, and antibodies generated against recombinant C-18 inhibited tachyzoite extract-induced synthesis of IL-12. Recombinant C-18 showed high(More)
Antibody (IgG) responses to salivary gland homogenate and to a recombinant salivary protein from the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis were investigated using sera from children living in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. We classified children into four groups according to their responses to Leishmania antigen: (Group I) positive serology(More)
The alternative pathway of complement is an important defense against pathogens and in tick rejection reactions. The tick Ixodes scapularis is able to feed repeatedly on its natural host and has a salivary anticomplement activity that presumably facilitates feeding. In this study, we purified and then obtained the amino-terminal sequence of the I.(More)
The saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains powerful pharmacologically active substances and may be a vaccine target against some vector-borne diseases. Subtractive cloning combined with biochemical approaches was used to discover activities in the salivary glands of the hematophagous fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Sequences of nine full-length cDNA clones(More)
Apyrases are enzymes that hydrolyze nucleotide di- and triphosphates to orthophosphate and mononucleotides. At least two families of enzymes, belonging to the 5'-nucleotidase and to the actin/heat shock 70/sugar kinase superfamily, have evolved independently to serve the apyrase reaction. Both families require either Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) for their action. A(More)
Immunity to a sand fly salivary protein protects against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in hamsters. This protection was associated with the development of cellular immunity in the form of a delayed-type hypersensitivity response and the presence of IFN-gamma at the site of sand fly bites. To date, there are no data available regarding the cellular immune(More)
Over 8000 expressed sequence tags from six different salivary gland cDNA libraries from the tick Ixodes scapularis were analyzed. These libraries derive from feeding nymphs infected or not with the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, from unfed adults, and from adults feeding on a rabbit for 6-12 h, 18-24 h, and 3-4 days. Comparisons of the several(More)
Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to arthropod vector salivary proteins is associated with protection against pathogen transmission. Massive cDNA sequencing, high-throughput DNA plasmid construction and DNA immunisation were used to identify twelve DTH inducing proteins isolated from a Phlebotomus ariasi salivary gland cDNA library. Additionally,(More)