Jesus G. Vallejo

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Enterovirus-induced myocardial injury can lead to severe heart failure. To date, little is known about the early innate stress response that contributes to host defense in the heart. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is important in the initiation of the innate antiviral response. We investigated the involvement of TLR3, which recognizes viral double-stranded(More)
The innate antiviral response is mediated, at least in part, by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLR3 signaling is activated in response to viral infection, and the absence of TLR3 in mice significantly increases mortality after infection with enteroviruses that cause myocarditis and/or dilated cardiomyopathy. We screened TLR3 in patients diagnosed with(More)
Over the past year there have been few significant breakthroughs in the understanding of the etiologies of viral myocarditis or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). One interesting trend has been the increasing number of reports of myocarditis associated with parvovirus B19 infection. Whether this is simply a result of improved diagnostics, or reflects an(More)
The precise molecular mechanisms responsible for sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction remain undefined. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) engages lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and activates signaling pathways leading to the expression of proinflammatory cytokines implicated in myocardial dysfunction. We determined whether TLR-4 was necessary for LPS-induced(More)
BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus sepsis is associated with significant myocardial dysfunction. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) mediates the inflammatory response to S aureus and may trigger an innate immune response in the heart. We hypothesized that a TLR2 deficiency would attenuate S aureus-induced cardiac proinflammatory mediator production and the(More)
The ability of the myocardium to successfully adapt to environmental stress ultimately determines whether the heart will decompensate and fail, or whether it will maintain preserved function. Despite the importance of the myocardial response to environmental stress, very little is known with respect to the biochemical mechanisms that are responsible for(More)
Although the adaptive immune system is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis, the role of the innate immune system has not been well defined. To address this deficiency, we employed a unique line of mice that harbor a genomic “knock in” of a mutated TNF gene lacking the AU rich element (TNFARE/ARE) that is critical for(More)
Recent studies have implicated Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 signaling in delimiting liver and brain injury following ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). To determine whether TLR2 and TLR4 conferred cytoprotection in the heart, we subjected hearts of wild-type (WT) mice and mice deficient in TLR2 (TLR2D), TLR4 (TLR4D), and TIR domain-containing adapter(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have shown that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) confers cytoprotective responses in cardiac myocytes. However, the mechanisms for the cytoprotective effects of TNF remain unknown. Given that TNF signals through nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and given that NF-kappaB mediates cytoprotective responses, we asked whether NF-kappaB(More)
Myocarditis is an important cause of heart failure in adolescents and young adults and is caused, most commonly, by viral infections. Viral myocarditis is characterized by cardiac inflammation and cardiomyocyte necrosis. The molecular pathogenesis of viral myocarditis is incomplete and specific therapies are not available. Proinflammatory cytokines such as(More)