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Expression of insulin receptor substrates (IRS)-1 and -2 within the mammary gland was found to be high at mid-lactation and dramatically decreased with mammary involution. This observation supports(More)
Previous studies have suggested that upstream stimulatory factors (USFs) regulate genes involved with cell cycle progression. Because of the relationship of USFs to an important oncogene in breast(More)
Milk synthesis by the mammary gland declines during prolonged lactation despite the continued suckling stimulus and complete removal of mammary secretions. Although this process has been hypothesized(More)
GH, prolactin (PRL), and IGF-I stimulate lactation-related metabolic processes in mammary epithelial cells. However, the ability of these factors to stimulate milk production in animals varies(More)