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Compared with the normal or wild-type condition, knockout mice lacking myostatin (Mstn), a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, develop significant increases in relative masticatory muscle mass as well as the ability to generate higher maximal muscle forces. Wild-type and myostatin-deficient mice were compared to assess the postweaning influence of(More)
IMPORTANCE The distance patients can travel outside the home influences how much of the world they can sample and to what extent they can live independently. Recent technological advances have allowed travel outside the home to be directly measured in patients' real-world routines. OBJECTIVE To determine whether decreased visual acuity (VA) from(More)
BACKGROUND Measles cases may cluster in densely populated urban centers in sub-Saharan Africa as susceptible individuals share spatially dependent risk factors and may cluster among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children despite high vaccination coverage. METHODS Children hospitalized with measles at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in(More)
Reactive case detection (RACD) for malaria is a strategy that may be used to complement passive surveillance, as passive surveillance fails to identify infections that are asymptomatic or do not seek care. The spatial and seasonal patterns of incident (index) cases reported at a single clinic in Chongwe District were explored. A RACD strategy was(More)
In Zambia and other sub-Saharan African countries affected by ongoing malaria transmission, indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria prevention has typically been implemented over large areas, e.g., district-wide, and targeted to peri-urban areas. However, there is a recent shift in some countries, including Zambia, towards the adoption of a more(More)
Malaria risk maps may be used to guide policy decisions on whether vector control interventions should be targeted and, if so, where. Active surveillance for malaria was conducted through household surveys in Nchelenge District, Zambia from April 2012 through December 2014. Households were enumerated based on satellite imagery and randomly selected for(More)
Despite large reductions in malaria burden across Zambia, some regions continue to experience extremely high malaria transmission. In Nchelenge District, Luapula Province, northern Zambia, almost half the human population carries parasites. Intervention coverage has increased substantially over the past decade, but comprehensive district-wide entomological(More)
Understanding factors influencing sustained use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) in areas of declining malaria transmission is critical to sustaining control and may facilitate elimination. From 2008 to 2013, 655 households in Choma District, Zambia, were randomly selected and residents were administered a questionnaire and malaria rapid(More)
Defining the number and location of sprayable structures (houses) is foundational to plan and monitor indoor residual spray (IRS) implementation, a primary intervention used to control the transmission of malaria. Only by mapping the location and type of all sprayable structures can IRS operations be planned, estimates of spray coverage determined, and(More)
As malaria transmission declines in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa, interventions to identify the asymptomatic reservoir are being deployed with the goals of improving surveillance and interrupting transmission. Reactive case detection strategies, in which individuals with clinical malaria are followed up at their home and household residents and(More)