Jessica Ward

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Infectious diseases can cause rapid population declines or species extinctions. Many pathogens of terrestrial and marine taxa are sensitive to temperature, rainfall, and humidity, creating synergisms that could affect biodiversity. Climate warming can increase pathogen development and survival rates, disease transmission, and host susceptibility. Although(More)
Reef-building corals are comprised of close associations between the coral animal, symbiotic zooxanthellae, and a diversity of associated microbes (including Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi). Together, these comprise the coral holobiont - a paradigm that emphasizes the potential contributions of each component to the overall function and health of the coral.(More)
Disease outbreaks alter the structure and function of marine ecosystems, directly affecting vertebrates (mammals, turtles, fish), invertebrates (corals, crustaceans, echinoderms), and plants (seagrasses). Previous studies suggest a recent increase in marine disease. However, lack of baseline data in most communities prevents a direct test of this(More)
munityand ecosystem-wide impacts in marine communities. A long-spined sea urchin disease virtually eradicated urchins from the Caribbean and facilitated a coral to algal shift on many reefs (Hughes et al. 1994). Coral diseases, such as white band (Figure 1), white plague, white pox, and aspergillosis (Figure 2), have caused major changes in Caribbean reef(More)
The Great Lakes are an important environmental and economic resource for Canada and the United States. The ecological integrity of the Great Lakes, however, is becoming increasingly threatened by a number of persistent, bio-accumulative and harmful chemicals that enter the Great Lakes ecosystem through fluvial and atmospheric deposition. Polybrominated(More)
Like most Caribbean octocorals, Gorgonia ventalina, the common sea fan, harbors endosymbiotic dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Symbiodinium. When stressed, the host can lose these algal symbionts, a phenomenon termed "bleaching." Many cnidarians host multiple types of algal symbionts within the genus Symbiodinium, and certain types of algae may be(More)
Field studies and empirical tests of the 'diversity-disease hypothesis' demonstrate the effects of species richness on disease transmission and severity in plant systems. Yet the converse, i.e. effects of disease on diversity, is rarely considered in either relatively well-studied plant systems or marine ecosystems. We investigated these effects along the(More)
This article describes the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice within the nurse researcher-participant relationship as these principles relate to the informed consent process for research. Within this process, the nurse is confronted with a dual role. This article describes how nurses, who are in the dual role of care provider and(More)