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Women have decreased orthostatic tolerance compared with men, and anecdotal evidence suggests women are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance in warm environments. Because estrogen and progesterone affect numerous physiological variables that may alter orthostatic tolerance, the purpose of our study was to compare orthostatic tolerance across the(More)
The initial skin blood flow response to rapid local heating is an axon reflex, which may be mediated by calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P released from C-fibres. We investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) and noradrenaline on the temperature threshold for the axon reflex during gradual local heating. 36 subjects participated in two studies.(More)
Numerous studies have shown that the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone have multiple effects on the vasculature. Thus our goal was to investigate the effects of estrogen and progesterone on calf venous compliance by looking for cyclic changes during the early follicular, ovulatory, and midluteal phases of the menstrual cycle and during high and(More)
BACKGROUND Ethinyl estradiol (EE) and progestins have the ability to alter endothelial function. The type of progestin and the ratio of EE to progestin used in oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) may determine how they affect the arterial vasculature. STUDY DESIGN In this study, we investigated endothelial function across a cycle in very low dose (VLD) and(More)
AIM Endothelial function is a predictor of cardiovascular health and is improved with exercise training. However, it is not clear how exercise acutely affects endothelial function. Previous studies present conflicting results, resulting from varied exercise protocols and ambiguity in data analysis after exercise. The aims of this study were to compare(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the oxygen cost of running barefoot vs. running shod on the treadmill as well as overground. 10 healthy recreational runners, 5 male and 5 female, whose mean age was 23.8±3.39 volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects participated in 4 experimental conditions: 1) barefoot on treadmill, 2) shod on(More)
Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are a popular contraception method. Currently, lower-dose ethinyl estradiol formulations are most commonly prescribed, although they have been linked to increased arterial vascular risk. The aim of this study was to investigate endothelial function in healthy young women using lower-dose ethinyl estradiol OCPs. We examined(More)
Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is widely known for its use in combination hormone therapy for postmenopausal women. However, MPA is also commonly used in young women for contraception and treatment of a number of gynecological conditions. Despite its widespread use, the cardiovascular effects of MPA in young women are unclear. Therefore, the purpose of(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine if a difference in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and delayed onset muscles soreness (DOMS) exists in two different phases of the menstrual cycle. Nine runners performed one 75-min high-intensity interval running session during the early follicular (EF) phase and once during the midluteal (ML) phase of the menstrual cycle.(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of the vaginal contraceptive ring cycle on indices of cardiovascular health and risk by studying healthy women during the active hormone phase compared with the ring-free phase of a standard 21/7-day cycle. DESIGN Observational prospective cohort; 4 weeks' duration. SETTING Department of Human Physiology, University of(More)