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Neural representations created in the absence of external sensory stimuli are referred to as imagery, and such representations may be augmented by reenactment of sensorimotor processes. We measured nasal airflow in human subjects while they imagined sights, sounds and smells, and only during olfactory imagery did subjects spontaneously enact the motor(More)
We conducted large scale gene expression analysis of the response of macrophages to exposure to oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL). Much of the vessel wall lesion of atherosclerosis is composed of macrophages that have become engorged with cholesterol. These resulting "foam cells" contribute to the progression of vascular disease through several(More)
The present study examined if nicotine enhances contextual fear conditioning when the training context is either a background stimulus or a foreground stimulus. In the background conditioning experiment, mice were trained using two auditory conditioned stimulus (CS; 30 s, 85 dB white noise)-footshock unconditioned stimulus (US; 2 s, 0.57 mA) pairings and(More)
Cardiac hypertrophy can lead to heart failure (HF), but it is unpredictable which hypertrophied myocardium will progress to HF. We surmised that apart from hypertrophy-related genes, failure-related genes are expressed before the onset of failure, permitting molecular prediction of HF. Hearts from hypertensive homozygous renin-overexpressing (Ren-2) rats(More)
Although brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) of myocardial origin is important in cardiovascular and renal function and as a marker of cardiac dysfunction, the expression of BNP in atrial and ventricular myocardium remains controversial both under normal conditions and in heart failure. We therefore determined left atrial and left ventricular (LV) gene(More)
The molecular motor, Myo1c, a member of the myosin family, is widely expressed in vertebrate tissues. Its presence at strategic places in the stereocilia of the hair cells in the inner ear and studies using transgenic mice expressing a mutant Myo1c that can be selectively inhibited implicate it as the mediator of slow adaptation of mechanoelectrical(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell lineages. We are examining ES cell differentiation in vitro by using cDNA microarrays to generate a molecular phenotype for each cell type. El4 ES cells induced by retinoic acid after forming embryoid bodies differentiate almost exclusively to neurons. We obtained expression(More)
Background—Pathological aspects of atherosclerosis are well described, but gene profiles during atherosclerotic plaque progression are largely unidentified. Methods and Results—Microarray analysis was performed on mRNA of aortic arches of ApoE Ϫ/Ϫ mice fed normal chow (NC group) or Western-type diet (WD group) for 3, 4.5, and 6 months. Of 10 176 reporters,(More)
Three natural forms of vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) provided the structural basis upon which to design new GnRH agonists: [His5,Trp7,Leu8]-GnRH, dogfish (df) GnRH; [His5,Asn8]-GnRH, catfish (cf) GnRH; and [His5,Trp7,Tyr8]-GnRH, chicken (c) GnRH-II. The synthetic peptides incorporated the position 6 dextro (D)-isomers D-arginine (D-Arg)(More)