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Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a popular domestic analgesic and antipyretic agent with a weak anti-inflammatory action and a low incidence of adverse effects as compared with aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Here we show that acetaminophen, following deacetylation to its primary amine, is conjugated with arachidonic acid in the brain(More)
The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) regulates neurotransmission and neuroinflammation by activating CB1 cannabinoid receptors on neurons and CB2 cannabinoid receptors on microglia. Enzymes that hydrolyze 2-AG, such as monoacylglycerol lipase, regulate the accumulation and efficacy of 2-AG at cannabinoid receptors. We found that the recently(More)
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) regulates a large class of signaling lipids, including the endocannabinoid anandamide. Carbamate inhibitors of FAAH display analgesic and anxiolytic properties in rodents. However, the mechanism by which carbamates inhibit FAAH remains obscure. Here, we provide biochemical evidence that carbamates covalently modify the(More)
How lipid transmitters move within and between cells to communicate signals remains an important and largely unanswered question. Integral membrane transporters, soluble lipid-binding proteins, and metabolic enzymes have all been proposed to collaboratively regulate lipid signaling dynamics in vivo. Assignment of the relative contributions made by each of(More)
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an integral membrane enzyme that degrades the fatty acid amide family of signaling lipids, including the endocannabinoid anandamide. Genetic or pharmacological inactivation of FAAH leads to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, and antidepressant phenotypes in rodents without showing the undesirable side effects(More)
Processing of polypeptide precursors by proprotein convertases (PCs) such as furin typically occurs within the trans-Golgi network. Here, we show in a variety of cell types that the propeptide of ADAMTS9 is not excised intracellularly. Pulse-chase analysis in HEK293F cells indicated that the intact zymogen was secreted to the cell surface and was(More)
ADAMTS5 (aggrecanase-2), a key metalloprotease mediating cartilage destruction in arthritis, is synthesized as a zymogen, proADAMTS5. We report a detailed characterization of the propeptide excision mechanism and demonstrate that it is a major regulatory step with unusual characteristics. Using furin-deficient cells and a furin inhibitor, we found that(More)
ADAMTS9 is a secreted, cell-surface-binding metalloprotease that cleaves the proteoglycans versican and aggrecan. Unlike most precursor proteins, the ADAMTS9 zymogen (pro-ADAMTS9) is resistant to intracellular processing. Instead, pro-ADAMTS9 is processed by furin at the cell surface. Here, we investigated the role of the ADAMTS9 propeptide in regulating(More)
Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase, a cysteine peptidase, catalyzes the hydrolysis of poly-gamma-glutamate derivatives of folate cofactors and many antifolate drugs. We have used internally quenched fluorogenic derivatives of glutamyl-gamma-glutamate and (4,4-difluoro)glutamyl-gamma-glutamate to examine the effect of fluorine substitution adjacent to the scissile(More)
Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a key activator of signaling pathways downstream of multiple surface receptors implicated in asthma. SYK function has been extensively studied in mast cells downstream of the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεR1. Preclinical studies have demonstrated a role for SYK in models of allergic inflammation, but a role in airway(More)
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