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Progress in understanding the basis of resistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RMP) has allowed molecular tests for the detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis to be developed. Consecutive isolates (n = 95) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, from a Spanish reference laboratory investigating outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, were coded and sent(More)
Sleep EEG in the sigma and delta frequency bands was subjected to spectral analysis in 8 normal young adults. In each subject, power density of sigma and delta oscillated reciprocally during NREM sleep, confirming an observation made initially with period/amplitude analysis. In REM sleep, power density for both frequency bands was at its lowest levels.(More)
It has been hypothesized that visually scored stage 4 EEG (dense, high amplitude 0.5-3 Hz (delta) waves) is a correlate of a metabolic process that reverses some of the effects of waking on the brain. The results of nap studies appear inconsistent with this hypothesis since late naps produce a disproportionate loss of stage 4 during subsequent sleep. We(More)
We analyzed the available ontogenetic data (birth to 30 years of age) for: amplitude of delta EEG (DA) waves during sleep; cortical metabolic rate (CMR) measured with positron emission tomography; and synaptic density (SD) in frontal cortex. Each is at the adult level at birth, increases to about twice this level by 3 years of age, and then gradually falls(More)
One night's sleep loss in young adults increased delta (0.3-3 Hz) EEG only in the first non-REM period of recovery sleep. The delta increase was limited to frequencies 0.3-4 Hz; within this range, the effects on wave form periods and amplitudes differed by frequency band. These results illustrate the value of computer analysis applied to the physiological(More)
Repeated administration of flurazepam reduced stage 4 sleep (high delta-wave concentration) but produced a greater increase in stage 2 duration so that total sleep time was increased. Computer analysis revealed that the increased amount of stage 2 (low delta-wave concentration) sleep provided a number and duration of delta waves sufficient to offset the(More)
We first review the concept of delta homeostasis as formulated in our 1974 model and as developed quantitatively by Borbely and colleagues in several versions of the two-process model. We illustrate difficulties in the application of this quantitative model to the negative delta rebound in the rat and we put forward additional evidence that the negative(More)
Electroencephalographic readings and eye movement were recorded in experienced marijuana users under placebo and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Four subjects were studied for 3 baseline nights, 3 nights under initial dosage of 70 mg/day, the last 3 nights of a 2-wk period of 210 mg/day, and the first 3 nights of withdrawal. Three other subjects were studied(More)
Zero-cross and zero-derivative period amplitude analysis (PAA) data were compared with power spectral analysis (PSA) data obtained with the fast Fourier transform in all-night sleep EEG from 10 subjects. Although PAA zero-cross-integrated amplitude showed good agreement with PSA power in 0.3-2 Hz, zero-cross analysis appears relatively ineffective in(More)
In one of a series of experiments aimed at gathering the empirical data required to formulate mathematically our recovery model of sleep, we recently (1) measured the increase in delta electroencephalogram (EEG) following one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD). We found that the delta rebound was confined to the first non-rapid eye movement period(More)