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Laminaria digitata is a highly prevalent kelp growing off the coast of the UK but has rarely been considered as a source of biomass to date. This study shows it can be used as a feedstock in both ethanol fermentation and anaerobic digestion for methane production. The study optimised several parameters in the fermentation of L. digitata and investigated the(More)
Climate change, fuel security and economics are creating a requirement for alternative, renewable fuels. Bioethanol is currently produced from land-based crops but in future marine biomass could be used as an alternative biomass source for bioethanol production. Macroalgae such as Laminaria spp. grow in abundance around the United Kingdom, reaching >4 m in(More)
To avoid negative impacts on food production, novel non-food biofuel feedstocks need to be identified and utilised. One option is to utilise marine biomass, notably fast-growing, large marine 'plants' such as the macroalgal kelps. This paper reports on the changing composition of Laminaria digitata throughout it growth cycle as determined by new(More)
A novel method of cell immobilization is described. The cell support consists of ceramic microspheres of approximately 50-75 microns diameter. The spheres are hollow, having a wall thickness of 10-15 microns and one entrance (ca. 20 microns diameter). The walls are porous with a mean pore size of approximately 90 nm. When a cell suspension (of S.(More)
Although experimental evidence now indicates that diffusion of hydrogen can influence the measured clearance curves from which local blood flow is inferred, its exact role has not yet been well defined. For this reason we have developed a theoretical treatment of the effects of diffusion near a boundary separating regions of inhomogeneous perfusion (e.g.(More)
Recent experiments on entangled polymer solutions may indicate a constitutive instability, and have led some to question the validity of existing constitutive models. We use a modern constitutive model, the Rolie-Poly model plus a solvent viscosity, and show that (i) this simple class of models captures instability, (ii) shear banding phenomena is(More)
Synopsis Spatially inhomogeneous shear flow occurs in entangled polymer solutions, both as steady state shear banding and transiently after a large step strain or during startup to a steady uniform shear rate. Theoretically, steady state shear banding is a hallmark of models with a nonmonotonic constitutive relation between total shear stress and applied(More)
Washing macroalgae is a ‘standard’ initial pre-treatment step, reported in a number of papers on biofuel production from macroalgae. Washing removes particulate matter; however, in this study, we show that washing may also have an adverse effect on the water-soluble carbohydrate contents present in the macroalgae, potentially reducing the quantity of the(More)
The elastic response of a smectic-C elastomer to three deformations, namely imposed lambda(xx), lambda(xz), and lambda(zz), has been modeled using a nonlinear theory of a nematic elastomer with embedded smectic layers, and with the director tilt (in the x direction) at a fixed angle with respect to the smectic layer normal (z direction). The main focus is(More)
The location of the medullary chemoreceptors is not conclusively established. The original experiments, which were believed to suggest a shallow surface location in the ventrolateral medulla, have been questioned because substances, particularly CO2, applied on the surface of the medulla could diffuse into small arterioles. Because the whole tissue blood(More)