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It has been hypothesized that increased HIV acquisition in uncircumcised men may relate to a more thinly keratinized inner foreskin. However, published data are contradictory and potentially confounded by medical indications for circumcision. We tested the hypothesis that the inner foreskin was more thinly keratinized than the outer foreskin using tissues(More)
Women account for a substantial majority of HIV infections in endemic regions, where women are also infected at a much younger age than men. Part of this epidemiological skewing is due to socio-cultural factors, but it is clear that biological factors enhance the susceptibility of women--particularly young women--to HIV acquisition after sexual exposure.(More)
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may contribute to rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) by being intrinsically involved in the rejection process and causing neointimal hyperplasia. The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi), sirolimus and everolimus, have been demonstrated to attenuate the progression of CAV and are cytotoxic to(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) increases the risk of HIV acquisition in men and overall CD4 T cell density in the foreskin. Using tissues obtained during routine male circumcision, we examined the impact of HSV-2 on the function and phenotype of foreskin T cells in Ugandan men. HSV-2 infection was predominantly associated with a compartmentalized(More)
UNLABELLED Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal bacterial imbalance associated with risk for HIV and poor gynecologic and obstetric outcomes. Male circumcision reduces BV-associated bacteria on the penis and decreases BV in female partners, but the link between penile microbiota and female partner BV is not well understood. We tested the hypothesis(More)
BACKGROUND The foreskin is the site of most HIV acquisition in uncircumcised heterosexual men. Although HIV-exposed, seronegative (HESN) uncircumcised men demonstrate HIV-neutralizing IgA and increased antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the foreskin prepuce, no prospective studies have examined the mucosal immune correlates of HIV acquisition. METHODS To(More)
BACKGROUND Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) expression in heart transplant patients has been negatively associated with acute cellular rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. We assessed HLA-G expression in vascular human endothelial and smooth muscle cell cultures to determine if future therapeutic agents can be targeted toward inducing HLA-G(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+) men are more susceptible to sexually transmitted infections, and may be superinfected by HIV. We hypothesized that HIV induces immune alterations in the foreskin that may impact the subsequent acquisition/clearance of genital coinfections. METHODS Foreskin tissue and blood were obtained from 70(More)
Vaginal proinflammatory cytokine expression during herpes virus reactivation was examined in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Vaginal swabs were screened for levels of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and(More)