Jessica K. Bell

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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the major cell-surface initiators of inflammatory responses to pathogens. They bind a wide variety of pathogenic substances through their ectodomains (ECDs). Here, we ask: what is the structural basis for this interaction? Toll-like receptor ECDs comprise 19-25 tandem copies of a motif known as the leucine-rich repeat (LRR).(More)
Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) act as sentinels of the innate immune system, sensing a variety of ligands from lipopolysaccharide to flagellin to dsRNA through their ligand-binding domain that is composed of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Ligand binding initiates a signaling cascade that(More)
TLR4 is the signal-transducing receptor for structurally diverse microbial molecules such as bacterial LPS, respiratory syncytial virus fusion (F) protein, and chlamydial heat shock protein 60. Previous studies associated two polymorphic mutations in the extracellular domain of TLR4 (Asp(299)Gly and Thr(399)Ile) with decreased LPS responsiveness. To analyze(More)
Pathogen recognition by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiates innate immune responses that are essential for inhibiting pathogen dissemination and for the development of acquired immunity. The TLRs recognize pathogens with their N-terminal ectodomains (ECD), but the molecular basis for this recognition is not known. Recently we reported the x-ray structure(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiate immune responses by recognizing pathogen-associated molecules, but the molecular basis for recognition is poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how receptor-ligand interactions lead to the initiation of downstream signaling. Here, we describe the mechanism by which TLR3 recognizes its ligand, double-stranded RNA(More)
Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) catalyzes the final step in the post-translational synthesis of hypusine (N(epsilon)-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine) in eIF5A. DOHH is a HEAT-repeat protein with eight tandem helical hairpins in a symmetrical dyad. It contains two potential iron coordination sites (one on each dyad) composed of two strictly conserved His-Glu(More)
The cell death–inducing serine protease granzyme A (GzmA) has a unique disulfide-linked quaternary structure. The structure of human GzmA bound to a tripeptide CMK inhibitor, determined at a resolution of 2.4 Å, reveals that the oligomeric state contributes to substrate selection by limiting access to the active site for potential macromolecular substrates(More)
Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) catalyzes the first step in the serine biosynthetic pathway. In lower plants and bacteria, the PGDH reaction is regulated by the end-product of the pathway, serine. The regulation occurs through a V(max) mechanism with serine binding and inhibition occurring in a cooperative manner. The three-dimensional structure of(More)
Periodontitis is the most common disease of microbial etiology in humans. Periopathogen survival is dependent upon evasion of complement-mediated destruction. Treponema denticola, an important contributor to periodontitis, evades killing by the alternative complement cascade by binding factor H (FH) to its surface. Bound FH is rapidly cleaved by the T.(More)
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes dsRNA and initiates an innate immune response through the formation of a signaling unit (SU) composed of one double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and two TLR3 molecules. We report the crystal structure of human TLR3 ectodomain (TLR3ecd) in a quaternary complex with three neutralizing Fab fragments. Fab15 binds an epitope that(More)