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Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuro-muscular disease characterized by specific degeneration of spinal cord anterior horn cells and subsequent muscle atrophy. Survival motor neuron ( SMN ), located on chromosome 5q13, is the SMA-determining gene. In the nucleus, SMN is present in large foci called gems, the function of which is not yet known,(More)
Reperfusion after global brain ischemia results initially in a widespread suppression of protein synthesis in neurons, which persists in vulnerable neurons, that is caused by the inhibition of translation initiation as a result of the phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). To identify kinases responsible for(More)
Cytoplasmic stresses, including heat shock, osmotic stress, and oxidative stress, cause rapid inhibition of protein synthesis in cells through phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) by eIF2alpha kinases. We have investigated the role of heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI), a heme-regulated eIF2alpha kinase, in stress responses of(More)
Fas ligand (CD95L) inhibits T cell function in immune-privileged organs such as the eye and testis, yet in most tissues CD95L expression induces potent inflammatory responses. With a stably transfected colon carcinoma cell line, CT26-CD95L, the molecular basis for these divergent responses was defined. When injected subcutaneously, rejection of CT26-CD95L(More)
The E6 proteins from cervical cancer-associated human papillomavirus (HPV) types such as HPV type 16 (HPV-16) induce proteolysis of the p53 tumor suppressor protein through interaction with E6-AP. We have previously shown that human mammary epithelial cells (MECs) immortalized by HPV-16 E6 display low levels of p53. HPV-16 E6 as well as other cancer-related(More)
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with the majority of cervical cancers and encode a transforming protein, E6, that interacts with the tumor suppressor protein p53. Because E6 has p53-independent transforming activity, the yeast two-hybrid system was used to search for other E6-binding proteins. One such protein, E6BP, interacted with(More)
Nuclear receptor 2E1 (NR2E1) is expressed in human fetal and adult brains; however, its role in human brain-behavior development is unknown. Previously, we have corrected the cortical hypoplasia and behavioral abnormalities in Nr2e1(-/-) mice using a genomic clone spanning human NR2E1, which bolsters the hypothesis that NR2E1 may similarly play a role in(More)
Microtubule dynamics facilitate neurite growth and establish morphology, but the role of minus-end binding proteins in these processes is largely unexplored. CAMSAP homologs associate with microtubule minus-ends, and are important for the stability of epithelial cell adhesions. In this study, we report morphological defects in neurons and neuromuscular(More)
Plants are continually subjected to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation (290 to 320 nanometers) as a component of sunlight, which induces a variety of types of damage to the plant DNA. Repair of the two major DNA photoproducts was analyzed in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and in a mutant derivative whose growth was sensitive to UV-B radiation. In wild-type(More)
The longitudinal relaxation time of hyperpolarized (HP) (129)Xe in the brain is a critical parameter for developing HP (129)Xe brain imaging and spectroscopy and optimizing the pulse sequences, especially in the case of cerebral blood flow measurements. Various studies have produced widely varying estimates of HP (129)Xe T(1) in the rat brain. To make(More)
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