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The venous return of the cerebral hemispheres is ensured by two systems. The first, superficial system, reaches the peripheral dural sinuses, i.e. the superior sagittal sinus, the lateral sinus and the cavernous sinus. The second, deep system, corresponds to Galen's vein. Anatomical and angiographic data from the literature enable the usual drainage(More)
The septohippocampal pathway, which is mostly composed of cholinergic and GABAergic projections between the medial septum/diagonal band (MS/DB) and the hippocampus, has an established role in learning, memory and disorders of cognition. In Wernicke-Korsakoff's syndrome (WKS) and the animal model of the disorder, pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency(More)
The septohippocampal pathway contains cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic projections and has an established role in learning, memory, and hippocampal theta rhythm. Both GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MSDB) have been associated with spatial memory, but the relationship between the two neuronal(More)
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS), a form of diencephalic amnesia caused by thiamine deficiency, results in severe anterograde memory loss. Pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD), an animal model of WKS, produces cholinergic abnormalities including decreased functional hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) release and poor spatial memory. Increasing(More)
A rodent model of diencephalic amnesia, pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD), was used to investigate the dynamic role of hippocampal and striatal acetylcholine (ACh) efflux across acquisition of a nonmatching-to-position (NMTP) T-maze task. Changes in ACh efflux were measured in rats at different time points in the acquisition curve of the task(More)
Diencephalic and temporal amnesics display an excessive sensitivity to proactive interference (PI) in memory tasks of the AB/AC kind. There exists considerable controversy about the nature of this sensitivity to PI. Moreover, it is an open question whether such sensitivity to PI is an obligatory feature of amnesia, or rather an incidental result of frontal(More)
Pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) was used to produce a rodent model of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome that results in acute neurological disturbances, thalamic lesions, and learning and memory impairments. There is also cholinergic septohippocampal dysfunction in the PTD model. Systemic (Experiment 1) and intrahippocampal (Experiment 2)(More)
Cerebral computed tomography of 45 infants has been carried out for a better assessment of the normal appearance of the different anatomical structures. The skull vault is often asymmetrical, the dura mater is very dense, and the ventricular system is small in contrast with the large subarachnoid spaces. The brain parenchyma contains zones of low(More)
A rodent model of diencephalic amnesia, pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD), was used to investigate diencephalic-limbic interactions. In-vivo acetylcholine (ACh) efflux, a marker of memory-related activation, was measured in the hippocampus and the amygdala of PTD-treated and pair-fed (PF) control rats while they were tested on a spontaneous(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChE) have their cognitive enhancing effects by stimulating cholinergic receptors within the medial septum. However, intraseptal administration of cholinergic enhancing drugs produce mixed results that appear to depend on both the integrity of the medial septum as well as task demands.(More)