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BACKGROUND Diagnosing drug-resistance remains an obstacle to the elimination of tuberculosis. Phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing is slow and expensive, and commercial genotypic assays screen only common resistance-determining mutations. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterise common and rare mutations predicting drug resistance, or consistency(More)
Virus gene sequencing and phylogenetics can be used to study the epidemiological dynamics of rapidly evolving viruses. With complete genome data, it becomes possible to identify and trace individual transmission chains of viruses such as influenza virus during the course of an epidemic. Here we sequenced 153 pandemic influenza H1N1/09 virus genomes from(More)
UNLABELLED Phylogenetic inference in bacterial genomics is fundamental to understanding problems such as population history, antimicrobial resistance, and transmission dynamics. The field has been plagued by an apparent state of contradiction since the distorting effects of recombination on phylogeny were discovered more than a decade ago. Researchers(More)
Norovirus is the commonest cause of epidemic gastroenteritis among people of all ages. Outbreaks frequently occur in hospitals and the community, costing the UK an estimated £110 m per annum. An evolutionary explanation for periodic increases in norovirus cases, despite some host-specific post immunity is currently limited to the identification of obvious(More)
BACKGROUND An urgent UK investigation was launched to assess risk of invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infection in cardiothoracic surgery and a possible association with cardiopulmonary bypass heater-cooler units following alerts in Switzerland and The Netherlands. METHODS Parallel investigations were pursued: (1) identification of cardiopulmonary(More)
Rabies virus (RABV) is enzootic throughout Africa, with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) being the principal vector. Dog rabies is estimated to cause 24,000 human deaths per year in Africa, however, this estimate is still considered to be conservative. Two sub-Saharan African RABV lineages have been detected in West Africa. Lineage 2 is present(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE Part 1: To measure ropivacaine levels in the mother and infant at delivery after continuous lumbar epidural infusion. Part 2: To compare epidural ropivacaine to epidural bupivacaine for labor analgesia in regard to effectiveness, motor blockade, and maternal and neonatal effects. DESIGN Part 1: Open-labelled, non-blind study. Part 2:(More)
Microbial genome evolution is shaped by a variety of selective pressures. Understanding how these processes occur can help to address important problems in microbiology by explaining observed differences in phenotypes, including virulence and resistance to antibiotics. Greater access to whole-genome sequencing provides microbiologists with the opportunity(More)
Binding to a chemokine receptor, either CCR5 or CXCR4, by the gp120 glycoprotein is an essential step in the pathway by which HIV enters host cells. Recently, CCR5 antagonists have been developed that obstruct binding of CCR5 by gp120, thus inhibiting host cell entry. Resistance to such CCR5 antagonists may emerge, however, through the selection of viral(More)
To the Editor: In their recent article, Svensson et al. provided results of an investigation into contamination of heater–cooler units (HCU) used in open-chest surgery with Mycobacterium chimaera in Denmark (1). We write to provide further information on the UK isolates included in their study. The authors performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 5(More)
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