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OBJECTIVE Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) was first approved in 2002 for use in single-level anterior lumbar fusions as an alternative to iliac crest grafts. Subsequent studies have concluded that(More)
OBJECTIVE Fusions across the cervicothoracic junction have been challenging because of the large biomechanical forces exerted resulting in frequent reoperations for nonunions. The objective of this(More)
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