Jessica E Galarraga

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RNA viruses exhibit extraordinarily high mutation rates during genome replication. Nonnatural ribonucleosides that can increase the mutation rate of RNA viruses by acting as ambiguous substrates during replication have been explored as antiviral agents acting through lethal mutagenesis. We have synthesized novel N-6-substituted purine analogues with(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE We study how reimbursements to emergency departments (EDs) for outpatient visits may be affected by the insurance coverage expansion of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as previously uninsured patients gain coverage either through the Medicaid expansion or through health insurance exchanges. METHODS We conducted a secondary(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE We examine adult emergency department (ED) admission rates for the top 15 most frequently admitted conditions, and assess the relative contribution in admission rate variation attributable to the provider and hospital. METHODS This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of ED encounters (≥18years) from 19 EDs and 603 providers (January(More)
The ability to extinguish a viral population of fixed reproductive capacity by causing small changes in the mutation rate is referred to as lethal mutagenesis and is a corollary of population genetics theory. Here we show that coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) exhibits reduced mutational robustness relative to poliovirus, manifesting in enhanced sensitivity of CVB3(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE Emergency physicians often work in multiple hospital emergency departments (EDs). We study how emergency physician admission decisions vary in different settings. METHODS We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study over two years (2012-3) in six EDs in three states. Included physicians had ≥200 encounters per site in two different(More)
As part of our studies of lethal viral mutagens, a series of 5-substituted cytidine analogues were synthesized and evaluated for antiviral activity. Among the compounds examined, 5-nitrocytidine was effective against poliovirus (PV) and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and exhibited greater activity than the clinically employed drug ribavirin. Instead of promoting(More)
BACKGROUND Disparities in health among blacks and Hispanics compared to whites individuals exist for a number of health measures; however, the health profile of individuals who are both black and Hispanic is not well known. We sought to determine whether race and ethnicity have synchronous or independent effects on health-related outcomes. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND Emergency department (ED) care is a focus of cost reduction efforts. Costs for acute care originating in the ED, including outpatient and inpatient encounters (i.e. ED episodes), have not been estimated. OBJECTIVE We estimate total US costs of ED episodes, potentially avoidable costs, and proportional costs of national health expenditures(More)
OBJECTIVES Ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) are acute care diagnoses that could potentially be prevented through improved primary care. This study investigated how payments and charges for these ACSC visits differ by three hospital-based settings (outpatient, emergency department [ED], and inpatient) and examined differences in payments and(More)
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