Jessica D. Smith

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BACKGROUND Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk (CMR) may be related to patterns of ethnic-specific body fat distribution. OBJECTIVE We aimed to identify differences across ethnic groups in interrelations between BMI, abdominal adiposity, liver fat, and CMR profile. DESIGN In the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and(More)
BACKGROUND Asian Indian immigrants have an increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, there is very little data examining how the adipokines leptin and adiponectin relate to CVD risk factors such as body fat percentage (BF%), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and the apoB/apoA1 ratio in Asian Indian men and women living in Canada. (More)
Insulin resistance is characterized by excessive endothelial cell generation of potentially cytotoxic concentrations of reactive oxygen species. We examined the role of NADPH oxidase (Nox) and specifically Nox2 isoform in superoxide generation in two complementary in vivo models of human insulin resistance (endothelial specific and whole body). Using three(More)
The objectives of the study were to quantify the effect of a 1-year healthy eating-physical activity/exercise lifestyle modification program on insulin sensitivity in viscerally obese men classified according to their glucose tolerance status and to evaluate the respective contributions of changes in body fat distribution vs changes in cardiorespiratory(More)
Excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with an increased cardiometabolic risk. The study examined whether changes in cardiometabolic risk markers after a 1-year lifestyle intervention in viscerally obese men were associated with changes in VAT or with changes in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT). The relative contributions of changes(More)
In eight dogs, cellotomy, rubbing the small bowel, and exposing it to air suppressed the migrating bursts of action potentials and contractions that occur in the gastrointestinal tract during fasting and greatly slowed (one to three days) the gastrointestinal transit of 7-mm plastic spheres. The operation also caused a transient one-day increase in the(More)
BACKGROUND Visceral adiposity is an important correlate of cardiometabolic risk, yet its association after the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes remains unclear. METHODS Our objective was to assess the independent and combined associations of visceral adiposity and type 2 diabetes to cardiometabolic risk. The INternational Study of Prediction of(More)
Low concentrations of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-1 (IGFBP1) are associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether increasing IGFBP1 levels can prevent the development of these disorders. Metabolic and vascular phenotype were examined in response to human IGFBP1 overexpression in mice with(More)
OBJECTIVE In mice, haploinsufficiency of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R(+/-)), at a whole-body level, increases resistance to inflammation and oxidative stress, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that by forming insulin-resistant heterodimers composed of one IGF-1Rαβ and one insulin receptor (IR), IRαβ complex in endothelial cells (ECs),(More)
BACKGROUND Visfatin is a recently described adipose tissue derived hormone whose role in humans remains largely unknown. OBJECTIVES To determine visfatin's relationship to lipoproteins and body composition parameters in Asian Indians and Caucasians. DESIGN A cross-sectional study. PATIENTS Men and women living in Montreal, Canada between the ages of(More)