Jessica D. Rhodes

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Impulsivity is a central component of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Delay discounting, or a preference for smaller, immediate rewards over larger, delayed rewards, is considered an important aspect of impulsivity, and delay-related impulsivity has been emphasized in etiological models of ADHD. In this study, we examined whether stimulant(More)
ADHD is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and disinhibition, including the inability to screen out distracting stimuli. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle indexes a related gating process and is enhanced during attended compared to ignored stimuli. We predicted that PPI during attended stimuli would be enhanced by the stimulant methylphenidate(More)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with health risks in adolescence which includes the potential for smoking cigarettes, early smoking initiation, and rapid progression to daily smoking. Much less is known, however, about prognostically relevant smoking behaviors among individuals with childhood ADHD. Further research in this area(More)
INTRODUCTION Understanding the mechanisms by which bupropion promotes smoking cessation may lead to more effective treatment. To the extent that reduced smoking reinforcement is one such mechanism, a longer duration of pre quit bupropion treatment should promote extinction of smoking behavior. We evaluated whether 4 weeks of pre quit bupropion (extended(More)
Smoking abstinence is known to cause decrements in cognition, but the effects are small and variable. One way to reduce variance may be to aggregate measures or visits. Although trait-like individual differences in smoking abstinence effects on cognition are theorized to predict relapse, the test-retest reliability (TRR) assumed in trait models has not been(More)
A large literature suggests associations between self-regulation and motivation and adolescent problem behavior; however, this research has mostly pitted these constructs against one another or tested them in isolation. Following recent neural-systems based theories (e.g., Ernst & Fudge, 2009 ), the present study investigated the interactions between(More)
Varenicline represents a new class of smoking cessation aids that has different mechanisms of action that are unique from bupropion or nicotine replacement therapies. An improved understanding of these mechanisms may lead to greater treatment success in quitting smoking. We examined the effects of steady-state varenicline on attention and inhibitory control(More)
BACKGROUND The selection criteria used in clinical trials for smoking cessation and in laboratory studies that seek to understand mechanisms responsible for treatment outcomes may limit their generalizability to one another and to the general population. METHODS We reviewed studies on varenicline versus placebo and compared eligibility criteria and(More)
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