Jessica Clare Scaife

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Sudden auditory stimuli elicit a short-latency muscular response (acoustic startle response) which is enhanced during presentation of a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) that has previously been paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) ('fear-potentiation'). In rodents, acute treatment with benzodiazepines blocks both the acquisition of(More)
BACKGROUND Binge drinking may lead to brain damage. The aim of the present study was to compare the cognitive abilities of binge and non-binge drinkers in tasks which test functions linked to discrete areas of the prefrontal cortex. METHODS Non-binge and binge drinkers were identified according to their binge score derived from the Alcohol Use(More)
Contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscle in response to a sudden loud sound (acoustic startle response) and the N1/P2 component of the auditory evoked potential are both attenuated when a brief low-intensity stimulus is presented 30-500 ms before the 'startle-eliciting' stimulus (PPI). Here, we report the effects of the 'atypical' antipsychotic drug(More)
AIMS To examine the relationship between sedation and pupillary function by comparing the effects of diazepam and diphenhydramine on arousal and pupillary activity. METHODS Fifteen male volunteers participated in three weekly sessions in which they received (i) diazepam 10 mg, (ii) diphenhydramine 75 mg and (iii) placebo, according to a balanced,(More)
Sudden intense sensory stimuli elicit a cascade of involuntary responses, including a short-latency skeletal muscular response ('eyeblink startle response') and longer-latency autonomic responses. These responses are enhanced when subjects anticipate an aversive event compared to periods when subjects are resting ('fear potentiation'). It has been reported(More)
Late-latency auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials are sensitive to some centrally acting drugs and to certain psychological interventions. In this experiment we compared the effects of acute doses of a benzodiazepine, diazepam and an H(1) histamine receptor-blocking sedative, diphenhydramine, on auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials within(More)
Classical fear conditioning involves pairing a neutral conditional stimulus (CS) with an aversive unconditional stimulus (US). Subsequent presentation of the CS alone induces fear responses. Acquisition of conditioned fear is thought to involve learning of the CS/US association, followed by memory consolidation. Recently we reported that the N1/P2 auditory(More)
Introduction. Histaminergic neurones are located in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) of the posterior hypothalamus and project to most areas of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, and many brain stem nuclei (1,2). The central histaminergic neurones have important roles in the regulation of arousal, endrocrine and autonomic functions. The(More)
Neuroimaging studies in anorexia nervosa (AN) suggest that altered food reward processing may result from dysfunction in both limbic reward and cortical control centers of the brain. This fMRI study aimed to index the neural correlates of food reward in a subsample of individuals with restrictive AN: twelve currently ill, fourteen recovered individuals and(More)
Neuroimaging studies in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) have shown increased activation in reward and cognitive control regions in response to food, and a behavioral attentional bias (AB) towards food stimuli is reported. This study aimed to further investigate the neural processing of food using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Participants were 13 females with(More)