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This paper discusses the notion of necessity in the light of results from contemporary mathematical practice. Two descriptions of necessity are considered. According to the first, necessarily true statements are true because they describe ‘unchangeable properties of unchangeable objects’. The result that I present is argued to provide a counterexample to(More)
Oxybutynin (Ditropan) is widely utilized in treatment of incontinence due to neurogenic bladder dysfunction. We prepared its R and S enantiomers and evaluated their antimuscarinic, Ca++-channel antagonistic and spasmolytic effects in guinea pig detrusor strips and ileal longitudinal muscle. Ussing chambers were used to assess inhibition of carbachol-induced(More)
A new class of substituted 1-phenyl-3-piperazinyl-2-propanones with antimuscarinic activity is reported. As part of a structure-activity relationship study of this class, various structural modifications, particularly ones involving substitution of position 1 and the terminal piperazine nitrogen, were investigated. The objective of this study was to derive(More)
Ten male patients with peripheral vascular disease, Type 2 (LaFontaine), were randomly assigned in a double-blind study to receive either Na2 ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) plus MgSO4, B complex, and vitamin C, or a placebo of MgSO4, B complex, and vitamin C in Ringer's lactate solution. A total of 20 intravenous infusions were planned for(More)
Five decapeptides were prepared, each having the generic primary sequence D-Arg0-Arg1-Pro2-Hyp3-Gly4-Thi5-Ser6-X7 -Y8-Arg9. A C-terminal beta-turn was anticipated when X was an alkyl ether of D-4-hydroxyproline in either the cis or trans geometric state and Y was either a Tic or Oic residue. Whereas cis ethers have only very weak receptor affinities, the(More)
The effect of erythropoietin (Epo) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone or in combination with the hepatoprotective antioxidant curcumin (Cur) was evaluated in a model of delayed liver regeneration. Sprague Dawley rats underwent 70% liver resection with simultaneous cecal ligation and puncture and were randomised to five groups: no(More)
BACKGROUND Curcumin (Cur) is a nontoxic, hepatoprotective antioxidant. Recent investigations have demonstrated a protective effect of curcumin pretreatment during cold ischemia of hepatocytes, but its impact on liver regeneration per se has not been investigated so far. MATERIAL AND METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) underwent sham(More)
A retrospective analysis of treatment results from 2870 patients, with various chronic degenerative and age-associated diseases, who were treated with di-sodium magnesium EDTA chelation therapy, suggests that the case against EDTA Chelation Therapy should be re-opened. Using qualitative but never-the-less standardized criteria for improvement, our analysis(More)