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Genetic screens for synaptogenesis mutants have been performed in many organisms, but few if any have simultaneously screened for defects in pre- and postsynaptic specializations. Here, we report the results of a small-scale genetic screen, the first in vertebrates, for defects in synaptogenesis. Using zebrafish as a model system, we identified seven(More)
Little is known about the spatial and temporal dynamics of presynaptic and postsynaptic specializations that culminate in synaptogenesis. Here, we imaged presynaptic vesicle clusters in motor axons and postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clusters in embryonic zebrafish to study the earliest events in synaptogenesis in vivo. Prepatterned AChR clusters(More)
JSON Web Token (JWT) is a means of representing claims to be transferred between two parties. The claims in a JWT are encoded as a JSON object that is digitally signed or HMACed using JSON Web Signature (JWS) and/or encrypted using JSON Web Encryption (JWE). The suggested pronunciation of JWT is the same as the English word "jot".
OBJECTIVE Anti-AMPAR encephalitis is a recently discovered disorder characterized by the presence of antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid against the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor. Here, we examine the antigenic specificity of anti-AMPAR antibodies, screen for new patients, and evaluate functional effects of(More)
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIc (CDG IIc) is characterized by mental retardation, slowed growth and severe immunodeficiency, attributed to the lack of fucosylated glycoproteins. While impaired Notch signaling has been implicated in some aspects of CDG IIc pathogenesis, the molecular and cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have(More)
Intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions is developmentally regulated in many tissues, including the nervous system. In rodent lumbar spinal cord, extensive gap junctional coupling among motor neurons innervating the same muscle is present at birth but is no longer present 1 week later. Little is known about how this motor-pool-specific(More)
We are studying the functional roles of neuronal gap junctional coupling during development, using motor neurons and their synapses with muscle fibers as a model system. At neuromuscular synapses, several studies have shown that the relative pattern of activity among motor inputs competing for innervation of the same target muscle fiber determines how(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The most relevant advances in immune-mediated movement disorders are described, with emphasis on the clinical--immunological associations, novel antigens, and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS Many movement disorders previously considered idiopathic or degenerative are now recognized as immune-mediated. Some disorders are paraneoplastic, such(More)
Opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome (OMAS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by rapid, random, conjugate eye movements (opsoclonus), myoclonus, and ataxia. Given these symptoms, autoantibodies targeting the cerebellum or brainstem could mediate the disease or be markers of autoimmunity. In a subset of patients with OMAS, we identified such(More)
In humans, mutations in electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH) lead to MADD/glutaric aciduria type II, an autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of devastating neurological, systemic and metabolic symptoms. We show that a zebrafish mutant in ETFDH, xavier, and(More)