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The study of elevational diversity gradients dates back to the foundation of biogeography. Although elevational patterns of plant and animal diversity have been studied for centuries, such patterns have not been reported for microorganisms and remain poorly understood. Here, in an effort to assess the generality of elevational diversity patterns, we(More)
Ecologists and conservation biologists have historically used species-area and distance-decay relationships as tools to predict the spatial distribution of biodiversity and the impact of habitat loss on biodiversity. These tools treat each species as evolutionarily equivalent, yet the importance of species' evolutionary history in their ecology and(More)
The in vivo significance of microtubule severing and the mechanisms governing its spatial regulation are not well understood. In Tetrahymena, a cell type with elaborate microtubule arrays, we engineered null mutations in subunits of the microtubule-severing complex, katanin. We show that katanin activity is essential. The net effect of katanin on the(More)
Mammalian spermatogenesis is a complex differentiation process that occurs in several stages in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. Currently, there is no reliable cell culture system allowing for spermatogenic differentiation in vitro, and most biological studies of spermatogenic cells require tissue harvest from animal models like the mouse and rat.(More)
Male rats demonstrate persistent endothelium-dependent attenuation of vasoconstrictor reactivity following chronic hypoxia (CH). Since estrogen may interfere with hypoxia-induced gene expression, we hypothesized that gender differences exist in this response to CH. However, in conscious, instrumented rats, we found that CH resulted in a similar persistent(More)
Splicing and alternative splicing are major processes in the interpretation and expression of genetic information for metazoan organisms. The study of splicing is moving from focused attention on the regulatory mechanisms of a selected set of paradigmatic alternative splicing events to questions of global integration of splicing regulation with genome and(More)
Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are natural physical features of the world's oceans. They create steep physiochemical gradients in the water column, which most notably include a dramatic draw down in oxygen concentrations over small vertical distances (<100 m). Microbial communities within OMZs play central roles in ocean and global biogeochemical cycles, yet(More)
Combined metagenomic and metatranscriptomic datasets make it possible to study the molecular evolution of diverse microbial species recovered from their native habitats. The link between gene expression level and sequence conservation was examined using shotgun pyrosequencing of microbial community DNA and RNA from diverse marine environments, and from(More)
Understanding patterns in the distribution and abundance of functional traits across a landscape is of fundamental importance to ecology. Mapping these distributions is particularly challenging for species-rich groups with sparse trait measurement coverage, such as flowering plants, insects, and microorganisms. Here, we use likelihood-based character(More)
The differentiation of gametes involves dramatic changes to chromatin, affecting transcription, meiosis, and cell morphology. Sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shares many chromatin features with spermatogenesis, including a 10-fold compaction of the nucleus. To identify new proteins involved in spore nuclear organization, we purified chromatin from(More)