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Rapidly-frozen hydrated (cryopreserved) specimens combined with cryo-scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy provide an ideal approach for investigating elemental distributions in biological cells and tissues. However, because cryopreservation does not deactivate potentially infectious agents associated with Risk Group 2 biological materials, one must be(More)
The ever-increasing amount of trans fatty acids in the human diet has been linked to a variety of afflictions, most notably coronary heart disease and arteriosclerosis. The mechanism of why the replacement of cis fatty acids with their trans counterparts can be detrimental to the health of an individual remains a mystery. Here, we compare the differences in(More)
AIMS To investigate the production of siderophores by Saccharopolyspora erythraea SGT2 and how this production is affected by the inoculum. METHODS AND RESULTS When grown in a low-iron, chemically defined medium (CDM), the soil dwelling actinomycete S. erythraea secretes a substance that is reactive in the nonspecific chrome azurol S (CAS) assay.(More)
Organic-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (OC-SPIONs) were synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. OC-SPIONs were transferred from organic media into water using poly(amidoamine) dendrimers modified with 6-TAMRA fluorescent dye and folic acid molecules. The saturation(More)
Dynamic fluxes in the concentration of ions and small molecules are fundamental features of cell signaling, differentiation, and development. Similar roles for fluxes in transition metal concentrations are less well established. Here, we show that massive zinc fluxes are essential in the infection cycle of an intracellular eukaryotic parasite. Using(More)
The pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is important to investigations of early development and to cell replacement therapy, but the mechanism behind pluripotency is incompletely understood. Zinc has been shown to play a key role in differentiation of non-pluripotent cell types, but here its role in hESCs is directly examined. By mapping the(More)
X-ray fluorescence microscopy is a powerful technique to map and quantify trace element distributions in biological specimens. It is perfectly placed to map nanoparticles and nanovectors within cells, at high spatial resolution. Advances in instrumentation, such as faster detectors, better optics, and improved data acquisition strategies are fundamentally(More)
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy is an important tool for studying trace metals in biology, enabling simultaneous detection of multiple elements of interest and allowing quantification of metals in organelles without the need for subcellular fractionation. Currently, analysis of XRF images is often done using manually defined regions of interest (ROIs).(More)
Binding of the peptide fragment 828-848 (P828), amino acid sequence RVIEVVQGACRAIRHIPRRIR, from the carboxy-terminal region of the envelope glycoprotein gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to membranes composed of a mixture of neutral and negatively charged phospholipids results in domain or cluster formation of the charged lipid. The(More)
Metalloproteins are enormously important in biology. While a variety of techniques exist for studying metals in biology, X-ray absorption spectroscopy is particularly useful in that it can determine the local electronic and physical structure around the metal center, and is one of the few avenues for studying "spectroscopically silent" metal ions like(More)