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The spatial organization of the genome is intimately linked to its biological function, yet our understanding of higher order genomic structure is coarse, fragmented and incomplete. In the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, interphase chromosomes occupy distinct chromosome territories, and numerous models have been proposed for how chromosomes fold within(More)
The laboratory mouse is the most widely used mammalian model organism in biomedical research. The 2.6 × 10(9) bases of the mouse genome possess a high degree of conservation with the human genome, so a thorough annotation of the mouse genome will be of significant value to understanding the function of the human genome. So far, most of the functional(More)
A large number of cis-regulatory sequences have been annotated in the human genome, but defining their target genes remains a challenge. One strategy is to identify the long-range looping interactions at these elements with the use of chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based techniques. However, previous studies lack either the resolution or coverage to(More)
reference epigenomes for histone modification marks when available (see Fig. 2). Signal confidence scores for each histone mark are computed in relevant chromatin states (see Methods). Plot and location of each point is identical to Fig. S10, but instead of denoting tissue/cell type, the colors denote the REMC production location, to evaluate whether the(More)
The reference human genome sequence set the stage for studies of genetic variation and its association with human disease, but epigenomic studies lack a similar reference. To address this need, the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium generated the largest collection so far of human epigenomes for primary cells and tissues. Here we describe the integrative(More)
Recent studies of genome-wide chromatin interactions have revealed that the human genome is partitioned into many self-associating topological domains. The boundary sequences between domains are enriched for binding sites of CTCC-binding factor (CTCF) and the cohesin complex, implicating these two factors in the establishment or maintenance of topological(More)
Higher-order chromatin structure is emerging as an important regulator of gene expression. Although dynamic chromatin structures have been identified in the genome, the full scope of chromatin dynamics during mammalian development and lineage specification remains to be determined. By mapping genome-wide chromatin interactions in human embryonic stem (ES)(More)
Antibodies that recognise the active phosphorylated forms of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 5 (MKK5) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) in untransfected cells have been exploited to show that the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced activation of MKK5 and ERK5 occurs subsequent to the activation of ERK1 and ERK2 in HeLa(More)
In the macrophage, toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key sensors that trigger signaling cascades to activate inflammatory programs via the NF-κB gene network. However, the genomic network targeted by TLR/NF-κB activation and the molecular basis by which it is restrained to terminate activation and re-establish quiescence is poorly understood. Here, using(More)
How eukaryotic chromosomes fold inside the nucleus is an age-old question that remains unanswered today. Early biochemical and microscopic studies revealed the existence of chromatin domains and loops as a pervasive feature of interphase chromosomes, but the biological implications of such organizational features were obscure. Genome-wide analysis of(More)