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A retrospective review of the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in 48 patients with intractable partial epilepsy was performed. Side effects were few and mild to moderate. Mean seizure frequency decreased by 26% after 1 year, 30% after 5 years, and 52% after 12 years with VNS treatment.
Stability is an important concern during human walking and can limit mobility in clinical populations. Mediolateral stability can be efficiently controlled through appropriate foot placement, although the underlying neuromechanical strategy is unclear. We hypothesized that humans control mediolateral foot placement through swing leg muscle activity, basing(More)
Intermittent stimulation of the vagus nerve in four patients resulted in complete seizure control in two, a 40% reduction of seizure frequency in one, and no change in seizure frequency in the other. Side effects (hoarseness, stimulation sensation in the neck, and hiccups) were transient and occurred concomitantly with stimulation. All patients tolerated(More)
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in clinical settings to activate skeletal muscle in an effort to mimic voluntary contractions and enhance the rehabilitation of human skeletal muscles. It is also used as a tool in research to assess muscle performance and/or neuromuscular activation levels. However, there are fundamental(More)
BACKGROUND This study retrospectively compared the effectiveness of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy among a constant cohort of patients in the patient outcome registry, which systematically monitors outcomes of patients receiving VNS therapy. Patients in the study had pharmacoresistant seizures for 6 years or less (early treatment group) or more than(More)
We performed a randomized double-blind crossover therapeutic bioequivalency study of a generic (Epitol) versus a brand name (Tegretol) carbamazepine product under steady-state conditions in 40 epileptic patients. Each patient received 90-day supplies of Epitol or Tegretol and placebo, which replaced the usual dosage of the alternate product. Group A(More)
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation can generate contractions through peripheral and central mechanisms. Direct activation of motor axons (peripheral mechanism) recruits motor units in an unnatural order, with fatigable muscle fibers often activated early in contractions. The activation of sensory axons can produce contractions through a central mechanism,(More)
We tested how lateral stability affects gait as a function of age. A simple computational model suggests that walking is laterally unstable and that age-related decreases in motor and sensory function may be treated as noise-like perturbations to the body. Step width variability may be affected by active control of foot placement subject to noise. We(More)
Potentiation is the enhancement of force seen after repetitive activation of skeletal muscle. The frequency and duration of stimulation, total number of pulses delivered to the muscle, and the peak forces or force-time integrals produced by the stimulation all have been suggested to affect the degree of potentiation. The purpose of this study was to(More)
Valproate has rapidly advanced as an antiepileptic drug in the last 15 years. This simple branched-chain fatty acid is strikingly different from previous antiepileptic drugs. Numerous clinical studies have found valproate to be highly effective in controlling generalized seizures, particularly as monotherapy. Ideally, valproate is given in three to four(More)