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In mammals, the first branchial arch (BA1) develops into a number of craniofacial skeletal elements including the jaws and teeth. Outgrowth and patterning of BA1 during early embryogenesis is thought to be controlled by signals from its covering ectoderm. Here we used Cre/loxP technology to inactivate the mouse Fgf8 gene in this ectoderm and have obtained(More)
Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is a member of the neurotrophin family , which includes nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5). These factors are crucial for development of the peripheral nervous system 1 , but not the central nervous system (CNS), except that NT-3 and BDNF have been implicated in the(More)
Overexpression of the proto-oncogene c-myc has been implicated in the genesis of diverse human tumours. c-Myc seems to regulate diverse biological processes, but its role in tumorigenesis and normal physiology remains enigmatic. Here we report the generation of an allelic series of mice in which c-myc expression is incrementally reduced to zero. Fibroblasts(More)
Amplified cellular genes in mammalian cells frequently manifest themselves as double minute chromosomes (DMs) and homogeneously staining regions of chromosomes (HSRs). With few exceptions both karyotypic abnormalities appear to be confined to tumour cells. All vertebrates possess a set of cellular genes homologous to the transforming genes of RNA tumour(More)
AHNAK is a newly identified human gene notable for the exceptional size (c.a. 700 kD) and structure of its product, and for the repression of its expression in human neuroblastoma cells. Here we report the identification and partial characterization of the protein encoded by AHNAK. The protein is located principally (but not exclusively) in the nucleus and(More)
We have isolated the proto-oncogene c-myb from Drosophila melanogaster. This gene is represented by a single locus at position 13E-F on the X chromosome, and is expressed in early embryos by transcription into two polyadenylated RNAs with lengths of approximately 3.0 and 3.8 kb. The gene may encode a protein with a molecular weight of at least 55,000 that(More)
Three major species of viral DNA have been observed in cells infected by retroviruses: a linear, double-stranded copy of a subunit of viral RNA; closed circular DNA; and proviral DNA inserted covalently into the genome of the host cell. We have studied the structures of the unintegrated forms of avian sarcoma virus (ASA) DNA using agarose gel(More)
Overexpression of MYC transforms cells in culture, elicits malignant tumours in experimental animals and is found in many human tumours. We now report the paradoxical finding that this powerful oncogene can also act as a suppressor of cell motility, invasiveness and metastasis. Overexpression of MYC stimulated proliferation of breast cancer cells both in(More)
As cells enter mitosis, the protein-tyrosine kinase, p60c-src, is known to be extensively phosphorylated on threonine in its amino-terminal region. In the present work, extracts of mitotic cells were searched for the protein kinase responsible for this phosphorylation. HeLa cells and Xenopus eggs were found to contain a mitosis-specific protein kinase(More)