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The idea of pollination syndromes has been largely discussed but no formal quantitative evaluation has yet been conducted across angiosperms. We present the first systematic review of pollination syndromes that quantitatively tests whether the most effective pollinators for a species can be inferred from suites of floral traits for 417 plant species. Our(More)
Studies of the North American columbines (Aquilegia, Ranunculaceae) have supported the view that adaptive radiations in animal-pollinated plants proceed through pollinator specialisation and floral differentiation. However, although the diversity of pollinators and floral morphology is much lower in Europe and Asia than in North America, the number of(More)
Divergent selection is a key in the ecological theory of adaptive radiation. Most evidence on its causes and consequences relies on studies of pairs of populations or closely related taxa. However, adaptive radiation involves multiple taxa adapted to different environmental factors. We propose an operational definition of divergent selection to explore the(More)
• The ecological and adaptive significance of plant polyploidization is not well understood and no clear pattern of association between polyploid frequency and environment has emerged. Climatic factors are expected to predict cytotype distribution. However, the relationship among climate, cytotype distribution and variation of abiotic stress tolerance(More)
A central issue in ecology is the understanding of the establishment of biotic interactions. We studied the factors that affect the assembly of the commensalistic interactions between vascular epiphytes and their host plants. We used an analytical approach that considers all individuals and species of epiphytic bromeliads and woody hosts and non-hosts at(More)
Measuring heritable genetic variation is important for understanding patterns of trait evolution in wild populations, and yet studies of quantitative genetic parameters estimated directly in the field are limited by logistic constraints, such as the difficulties of inferring relatedness among individuals in the wild. Marker-based approaches have received(More)
Glandular trichomes play a defensive role against herbivores in the leaves of many plant species. However, their functional role in inflorescences has not been studied, even though theory suggests that tissues with a higher fitness value, such as inflorescences, should be better defended. Using manipulative experiments, we analysed the defensive role of(More)
Habitat loss and landscape degradation affect animal-mediated seed dispersal, often collapsing the regeneration of endangered plant species and habitats in anthropogenic landscapes. We first compared the role of red fox and other vertebrates as seed disperser for the keystone scrub Ziziphus lotus. Because it turned out that foxes are the major Z. lotus(More)
PREMISE OF THE STUDY Microsatellite primers were developed to characterize and evaluate patterns of genetic diversity and structure in the endangered Mediterranean shrub Ziziphus lotus (Rhamnaceae). METHODS AND RESULTS Twenty microsatellite primers were developed for Z. lotus, of which 14 were polymorphic. We evaluated microsatellite polymorphism in 97(More)
Southern European columbines (genus Aquilegia) are involved in active processes of diversification, and the Iberian Peninsula offers a privileged observatory to witness the process. Studies on Iberian columbines have provided significant advances on species diversification, but we still lack a complete perspective of the genetic diversification in the(More)
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