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Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and nitric oxide (NO) may play a role in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiac depression. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) mediates the cytokine response to LPS in immune cells. TLR-4 also is expressed in human and murine myocardial tissue. Therefore, the hypothesis that LPS induces proinflammatory(More)
OBJECTIVE Despite the recent resurgence of tuberculosis among children in the United States, no series of infants < 1 year of age with tuberculosis has been reported in the last 20 years. This study was undertaken to describe the epidemiology, clinical, and radiographic manifestations, and response to therapy in infants < 1 year of age with tuberculous(More)
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) released from necrotic cells or macrophages functions as a late inflammatory mediator and has been shown to induce cardiovascular collapse during sepsis. Thus far, however, the effect(s) of HMGB1 in the heart are not known. We determined the effects of HMGB1 on isolated feline cardiac myocytes by measuring sarcomere(More)
BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus sepsis is associated with significant myocardial dysfunction. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) mediates the inflammatory response to S aureus and may trigger an innate immune response in the heart. We hypothesized that a TLR2 deficiency would attenuate S aureus-induced cardiac proinflammatory mediator production and the(More)
The innate antiviral response is mediated, at least in part, by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLR3 signaling is activated in response to viral infection, and the absence of TLR3 in mice significantly increases mortality after infection with enteroviruses that cause myocarditis and/or dilated cardiomyopathy. We screened TLR3 in patients diagnosed with(More)
Diets high in cholesterol and cholate such as the Paigen diet have been used to study atherogenesis, lithogenesis, and proinflammatory microvascular changes induced by nutritional hypercholesterolemia. Although these diets lead to chronic hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, the early inflammatory changes have been poorly characterized. TLR4, a known receptor(More)
BACKGROUND Septic arthritis (SA) and acute osteomyelitis (AO) are among the most common serious bacterial infections of childhood. Knowledge of the microbiology of SA is critical to treatment. Awareness of the presence of attendant AO is also important to guide clinical management. We sought to describe the current microbiology of SA in children and(More)
Recent studies have implicated Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 signaling in delimiting liver and brain injury following ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). To determine whether TLR2 and TLR4 conferred cytoprotection in the heart, we subjected hearts of wild-type (WT) mice and mice deficient in TLR2 (TLR2D), TLR4 (TLR4D), and TIR domain-containing adapter(More)
Our current understanding of the pathogenesis of sepsis suggests that bacteria as well as bacterial-derived products activate an uncontrolled network of host-derived mediators such as proinflammatory cytokines (ie, tumor necrosis factor [TNF] and interleukin [IL]-1beta), which can ultimately lead to cardiovascular collapse and death. Despite the potentially(More)
The precise molecular mechanisms responsible for sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction remain undefined. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) engages lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and activates signaling pathways leading to the expression of proinflammatory cytokines implicated in myocardial dysfunction. We determined whether TLR-4 was necessary for LPS-induced(More)