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Much attention has been drawn to the possible involvement of hypothalamic inflammation in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, especially in response to a high-fat diet. Microglia, the macrophages of the central nervous system, can be activated by proinflammatory signals resulting in the local production of specific interleukins and cytokines, which in(More)
Stress during pregnancy can impair biological and behavioral responses in the adult offspring and some of these effects are associated with structural changes in specific brain regions. Furthermore, these outcomes can vary according to strain, gender, and type and duration of the maternal stress. Indeed, early stress can induce sexually dimorphic long-term(More)
Astrocytes participate in neuroendocrine functions partially through modulation of synaptic input density in the hypothalamus. Indeed, glial ensheathing of neurons is modified by specific hormones, thus determining the availability of neuronal membrane space for synaptic inputs, with the loss of this plasticity possibly being involved in pathological(More)
The protective effects of insulin-like growth factor I on the somatostatin (SRIF) system in the temporal cortex after beta-amyloid (Abeta) injury may be mediated through its N-terminal tripeptide glycine-proline-glutamate (GPE). GPE is cleaved to cyclo[Pro-Gly] (cPG), a metabolite suggested to mediate in neuroprotective actions. We evaluated the effects of(More)
Maternal deprivation (MD) during neonatal life has diverse long-term effects, including affectation of metabolism. Indeed, MD for 24 hours during the neonatal period reduces body weight throughout life when the animals are maintained on a normal diet. However, little information is available regarding how this early stress affects the response to increased(More)
The system KISS1-KISS1R is one of the main regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and constitutes a link between metabolism and reproduction through its interaction with leptin. The aim of this study was to clarify the possible utility of kisspeptin as a pubertal marker and/or the possible influence of nutritional status in kisspeptin levels.(More)
Recent studies have identified biomarkers related to the severity and pathogenesis of cocaine addiction and common comorbid psychiatric disorders. Monitoring these plasma mediators may improve the stratification of cocaine users seeking treatment. Because the neurotrophic factors are involved in neural plasticity, neurogenesis and neuronal survival, we have(More)
Kisspeptin, the product of the hypothalamic KISS1 gene, is a main regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and could be a link between metabolism and reproduction through its interaction with leptin. Kisspeptin could be involved in gonadotropin regulation and responsive to leptin levels from the first stages of life, exhibiting, as does leptin,(More)
We have previously demonstrated that neurons in the rostral arcuate nucleus expressing the messenger RNA (mRNA) for pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) are responsive to modulation by physiological levels of testosterone. It is uncertain, however, whether testosterone's action is mediated through direct activation of androgen receptors or through aromatization to(More)
We found that leptin receptors were expressed in hypothalamic astrocytes and that their conditional deletion led to altered glial morphology and synaptic inputs onto hypothalamic neurons involved in feeding control. Leptin-regulated feeding was diminished, whereas feeding after fasting or ghrelin administration was elevated in mice with astrocyte-specific(More)