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OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing), a table-driven proactive protocol, standardized (RFC3626) for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs), only works properly if participating nodes cooperate in routing. Hence, if nodes inject invalid messages or withhold critical messages, routing protocol integrity may be compromised - the protocol will fail to consistently(More)
Much research in Bayesian modeling has been done to elicit a prior distribution that incorporates domain knowledge. We present a novel and more direct approach by imposing First-Order Logic (FOL) rules on the posterior distribution. Our approach unifies FOL and Bayesian model-ing under the regularized Bayesian framework. In addition, our approach(More)
Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the external morphology of first-, second-, and third-instar stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)). In the cephalic region, the antennae, labial lobe, and maxillary palpi are morphologically similar among instars. Antennae comprise a prominent anterior dome that is the primary site of olfaction, while the(More)
Stable flies are blood feeding parasites and serious pests of livestock. The immature stages develop in decaying materials which frequently have high ammonium content. We added various ammonium salts to our laboratory stable fly rearing medium and measured their effect on size and survival as well as the physical properties of the used media. The addition(More)
The dynamics of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations relative to temperature and precipitation were evaluated in a 13-yr study in eastern Nebraska. During the course of the study, >1.7 million stable flies were collected on an array of 25 sticky traps. A log-normal model using degree-days with a 15 °C threshold and weekly lags 0-4 for(More)
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