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The purpose of the present study was to determine the extent of immunologic responses, particularly immunopathologic responses, within the upper and lower respiratory tracts after intranasal immunization using the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT). BALB/c mice were nasally immunized with influenza virus vaccine combined with CT. The inclusion of the(More)
Recent studies in experimental animals and humans have shown that the mucosal immune system, which is characterized by secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibodies as the major humoral defence factor, contains specialized lymphoid tissues where antigens are encountered from the environment, are taken up and induce B- and T-cell responses. This event is followed by an(More)
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) have been extensively studied in the murine small intestine. However, to date no studies have assessed IEL in the large intestine, despite the marked differences in function and lumenal environment. In the present study, we isolated IEL from both small and large intestine of three mouse strains (BALB/c, C3H/HeN, C57BL/6)(More)
We have characterized a nontoxic mutant of cholera toxin (CT) as a mucosal adjuvant in mice. The mutant CT was made by substitution of serine with phenylalanine at position 61 of the A subunit (S61F), which resulted in loss of ADP ribosyltransferase activity and toxicity. Mice were intranasally immunized with ovalbumin, tetanus toxoid, or influenza virus(More)
In the development of mucosal vaccines, cholera toxin (CT) has been shown to be an effective adjuvant and to induce both mucosal and systemic immune responses via a Th2 cell-dependent pathway. However, a major concern for use of mucosal adjuvants such as CT is that this molecule is not suitable for use in humans because of its innate toxicity. Recent(More)
The difference in susceptibility to urinary tract infection between C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeN mice was tested for with gram-negative strains differing in lipopolysaccharide composition. Recently, impaired clearance of Escherichia coli from the kidney of C3H/HeJ compared to C3H/HeN mice was shown to be correlated with the LPS low responsiveness. In this study, a(More)
Heterosubtypic immunity, defined as cross-reactive immune responses to influenza virus of a different serotype than the virus initially encountered, was investigated in association with virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses induced in systemic and mucosa-associated lymph nodes after immunization via different routes. Mice immunized by the(More)
Protective immunity to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is antibody (Ab) dependent; however, oral immunization with purified ETEC fimbriae fails to elicit protective immunity as a consequence of antigenic alteration by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Unless unaltered ETEC fimbriae can reach the inductive lymphoid tissues of the GI tract, immunity to(More)
Cholera toxin (CT), the most commonly used mucosal adjuvant in experimental animals, is unsuitable for humans because of potent diarrhea-inducing properties. We have constructed two CT-A subunit mutants, e.g., serine-->phenylalanine at position 61 (S61F), and glutamic acid-->lysine at 112 (E112K) by site-directed mutagenesis. Neither mutant CT (mCT), in(More)
A common mucosal immune system occurs in mammalian species, where antigen stimulation of BALT and GALT induces an exodus of specific lymphocytes that home to the various mucosal effector sites. These responses are finely regulated and T cells and cytokines are of central importance for ultimate plasma cell differentiation and for production of S-IgA(More)