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Cholera toxin (CT), the most commonly used mucosal adjuvant in experimental animals, is unsuitable for humans because of potent diarrhea-inducing properties. We have constructed two CT-A subunit mutants, e.g., serine-->phenylalanine at position 61 (S61F), and glutamic acid-->lysine at 112 (E112K) by site-directed mutagenesis. Neither mutant CT (mCT), in(More)
The purpose of the present study was to determine the extent of immunologic responses, particularly immunopathologic responses, within the upper and lower respiratory tracts after intranasal immunization using the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT). BALB/c mice were nasally immunized with influenza virus vaccine combined with CT. The inclusion of the(More)
Nasal immunization is an effective way to induce both mucosal and systemic immune responses. In this study, we assessed a cDNA vector for Flt3 ligand (FL) for its potential to enhance mucosal immunity or tolerance. Interestingly, tolerance was avoided and elevated levels of OVA-specific Ab responses were induced in nasal washes, fecal extracts, and saliva(More)
An intricate network of innate and immune cells and their derived mediators function in unison to protect us from toxic elements and infectious microbial diseases that are encountered in our environment. This vast network operates efficiently by use of a single cell epithelium in, for example, the gastrointestinal (GI) and upper respiratory (UR) tracts,(More)
To investigate the potential involvement of T helper (Th)2-type responses in murine models of intestinal inflammation, we used trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-hapten to induce inflammatory bowel disease in situations where Th1-type responses with interferon (IFN)-gamma synthesis are either diminished or do not occur. Intracolonic administration of TNBS(More)
Antigen-specific B cell responses to mucosally delivered proteins are dependent upon CD4-positive T helper (Th) cells, and the frequency of Th1 and Th2 cell responses after oral immunization may determine the level and isotype of mucosal antibody responses. We have used a protein-based vaccine, tetanus toxoid (TT), together with the mucosal adjuvant cholera(More)
Freshly isolated murine PP B cells were cultured with 10 different cytokines, including IL-1 alpha, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta, to investigate a possible role for these cytokines in induction of Ig synthesis. Of interest was the finding that only IL-5 and both mouse recombinant (mr) and human recombinant (hr) IL-6(More)
We tested the notion that the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) could target, in addition to nasal-associated lymphoreticular tissues, the olfactory nerves/epithelium (ON/E) and olfactory bulbs (OBs) when given intranasally. Radiolabeled CT ((125)I-CT) or CT-B subunit ((125)I-CT-B), when given intranasally to mice, entered the ON/E and OB and persisted(More)
Our previous studies showed that mucosal immunity was impaired in 1-year-old mice that had been orally immunized with OVA and native cholera toxin (nCT) as mucosal adjuvant. In this study, we queried whether similar immune dysregulation was also present in mucosal compartments of mice immunized by the nasal route. Both 1-year-old and young adult mice were(More)