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Cholera toxin (CT), the most commonly used mucosal adjuvant in experimental animals, is unsuitable for humans because of potent diarrhea-inducing properties. We have constructed two CT-A subunit mutants, e.g., serine-->phenylalanine at position 61 (S61F), and glutamic acid-->lysine at 112 (E112K) by site-directed mutagenesis. Neither mutant CT (mCT), in(More)
The purpose of the present study was to determine the extent of immunologic responses, particularly immunopathologic responses, within the upper and lower respiratory tracts after intranasal immunization using the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT). BALB/c mice were nasally immunized with influenza virus vaccine combined with CT. The inclusion of the(More)
To investigate the potential involvement of T helper (Th)2-type responses in murine models of intestinal inflammation, we used trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-hapten to induce inflammatory bowel disease in situations where Th1-type responses with interferon (IFN)-gamma synthesis are either diminished or do not occur. Intracolonic administration of TNBS(More)
Antigen-specific B cell responses to mucosally delivered proteins are dependent upon CD4-positive T helper (Th) cells, and the frequency of Th1 and Th2 cell responses after oral immunization may determine the level and isotype of mucosal antibody responses. We have used a protein-based vaccine, tetanus toxoid (TT), together with the mucosal adjuvant cholera(More)
Freshly isolated murine PP B cells were cultured with 10 different cytokines, including IL-1 alpha, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta, to investigate a possible role for these cytokines in induction of Ig synthesis. Of interest was the finding that only IL-5 and both mouse recombinant (mr) and human recombinant (hr) IL-6(More)
We successfully cloned antigen-specific T cells from murine gut-associated lymphoreticular tissue, i.e., Peyer's patches, which are dependent upon T cell growth factor and independent of antigen for continuous growth. These clones exhibit helper activity for IgA responses to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) and have been designated T helper (Th) A. Two broad(More)
The nature of the IgA B cell precursors that receive preferential help from selected clones of T helper cells from mouse Peyer's patches (PP Th A) were studied. Activation of the PP Th A clones required the presence of antigen, sheep erythrocytes (SRBC), in a culture system supporting development of antibody-secreting plasma cells. Two types of PP Th A(More)
By employing primary cultures of purified spleen cells from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responder (C3H/HeN or C57BL/10Sn) or nonresponder (C3H/HeJ or C57BL/10ScN) mice incubated with particulate antigen and LPS prepared by phenol-water extraction (Ph), we have presented evidence that both T cells and macrophages (MO) are required for LPS-induced adjuvanticity.(More)