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Campylobacter jejuni is a major human enteric pathogen that displays genetic variability via genomic reorganization and phase variation. This variability can adversely affect the outcomes and reproducibility of experiments. C. jejuni strain 81116 (NCTC11828) has been suggested to be a genetically stable strain (G. Manning, B. Duim, T. Wassenaar, J. A.(More)
Lactobacillus plantarum, a commensal bacterium of humans, has been proposed to enhance the intestinal barrier, which is compromised in a number of intestinal disorders. To study the effect of L. plantarum strain WCFS1 on human barrier function, healthy subjects were administered L. plantarum or placebo in the duodenum for 6 h by means of a feeding catheter.(More)
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically active commensal bacterium as a component of the healthy(More)
This article provides an overview of how intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) recognize commensals and how they maintain host-bacterial symbiosis. Endocrine, goblet cells, and enterocytes of the intestinal epithelium express a range of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) to sense the presence of microbes. The best characterized are the Toll-like receptors(More)
Probiotic bacteria are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. There is a growing interest in probiotics within the scientific community, with consumers, and in the food industry. The interactions between the gut and intestinal microbiota and between resident and transient microbiota define a new(More)
Of the 13 two-component signal transduction systems (TCS) identified in Streptococcus pneumoniae, two, ComDE and CiaRH, are known to affect competence for natural genetic transformation. ComD and ComE act together with the comC-encoded competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) and with ComAB, the CSP-dedicated exporter, to co-ordinate activation of genes(More)
Data are accumulating that emphasize the important role of the intestinal barrier and intestinal permeability for health and disease. However, these terms are poorly defined, their assessment is a matter of debate, and their clinical significance is not clearly established. In the present review, current knowledge on mucosal barrier and its role in disease(More)
Two large tetracycline resistance (TcR) plasmids have been completely sequenced, the pTet plasmid (45.2 kb) from Campylobacter jejuni strain 81-176 and a plasmid pCC31 (44.7 kb) from Campylobacter coli strain CC31 that was isolated from a human case of severe gastroenteritis in the UK. Both plasmids are mosaic in structure, having homologues of genes found(More)
The toxin-antitoxin operon of pSM19035 encodes three proteins: the omega global regulator, the epsilon labile antitoxin and the stable zeta toxin. Accumulation of zeta toxin free of epsilon antitoxin induced loss of cell proliferation in both Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli cells. Induction of a zeta variant (zetaY83C) triggered stasis, in which B.(More)
BACKGROUND Probiotics can be used to stimulate or regulate epithelial and immune cells of the intestinal mucosa and generate beneficial mucosal immunomodulatory effects. Beneficial effects of specific strains of probiotics have been established in the treatment and prevention of various intestinal disorders, including allergic diseases and diarrhea.(More)