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E2F-mediated transcription is thought to involve binding of an E2F-pocket protein complex to promoters in the G(0) phase of the cell cycle and release of the pocket protein in late G(1), followed by release of E2F in S phase. We have tested this model by monitoring protein-DNA interactions in living cells using a formaldehyde cross-linking and(More)
BACKGROUND Probiotics can be used to stimulate or regulate epithelial and immune cells of the intestinal mucosa and generate beneficial mucosal immunomodulatory effects. Beneficial effects of specific strains of probiotics have been established in the treatment and prevention of various intestinal disorders, including allergic diseases and diarrhea.(More)
BACKGROUND Specific strains of Lactobacillus plantarum are marketed as health-promoting probiotics. The role and interplay of cell-wall compounds like wall- and lipo-teichoic acids (WTA and LTA) in bacterial physiology and probiotic-host interactions remain obscure. L. plantarum WCFS1 harbors the genetic potential to switch WTA backbone alditol, providing(More)
Group B streptococci (GBS) usually behave as commensal organisms that asymptomatically colonize the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts of adults. However, GBS are also pathogens and the leading bacterial cause of life-threatening invasive disease in neonates. While the events leading to transmission and disease in neonates remain unclear, GBS carriage(More)
Data are accumulating that emphasize the important role of the intestinal barrier and intestinal permeability for health and disease. However, these terms are poorly defined, their assessment is a matter of debate, and their clinical significance is not clearly established. In the present review, current knowledge on mucosal barrier and its role in disease(More)
Over the past decade it has become clear that lactobacilli and other probiotic and commensal organisms can interact with mucosal immune cells or epithelial cells lining the mucosa to modulate specific functions of the mucosal immune system. The most well understood signalling mechanisms involve the innate pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like(More)
Campylobacter jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen and the most common cause of bacterial foodborne diarrhoeal illness worldwide. To establish intestinal colonization prior to either a commensal or pathogenic interaction with the host, C. jejuni will encounter iron-limited niches where there is likely to be intense competition from the host and normal microbiota(More)
Trypanosomes of the species Trypanosoma brucei reproduce primarily by binary fission, but the frequency of enzyme electrophoretic variants in natural populations of T. brucei has provided indirect evidence for the existence of a sexual cycle. These studies, coupled with studies of restriction fragment length polymorphisms of genes encoding glycolytic(More)
BACKGROUND Modulation of the immune system is one of the most plausible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria on human health. Presently, the specific probiotic cell products responsible for immunomodulation are largely unknown. In this study, the genetic and phenotypic diversity of strains of the Lactobacillus plantarum species(More)
The YycFG two-component system, originally identified in Bacillus subtilis, is highly conserved among gram-positive bacteria with low G+C contents. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the YycF response regulator has been reported to be essential for cell growth, but the signal to which it responds and the gene members of the regulon remain unclear. In order to(More)