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Osteoporosis and other diseases of bone loss are a major public health problem. Here it is shown that the statins, drugs widely used for lowering serum cholesterol, also enhance new bone formation in vitro and in rodents. This effect was associated with increased expression of the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) gene in bone cells. Lovastatin and(More)
Dendritic cell (DC)-mediated cross-presentation of exogenous antigens acquired in the periphery is critical for the initiation of CD8(+) T cell responses. Several DC subsets are described in human tissues but migratory cross-presenting DCs have not been isolated, despite their potential importance in immunity to pathogens, vaccines, and tumors and tolerance(More)
Although classified as hematopoietic cells, tissue-resident macrophages (MFs) arise from embryonic precursors that seed the tissues prior to birth to generate a self-renewing population, which is maintained independently of adult hematopoiesis. Here we reveal the identity of these embryonic precursors using an in utero MF-depletion strategy and fate-mapping(More)
The biological properties of stem cells are key to the success of cell therapy, for which MSC are promising candidates. Although most therapeutic applications to date have used adult bone marrow MSC, increasing evidence suggests that MSC from neonatal and mid-gestational fetal tissues are more plastic and grow faster. Fetal stem cells have been isolated(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human adult bone marrow (haMSCs) represent a promising source for bone tissue engineering. However, their low frequencies and limited proliferation restrict their clinical utility. Alternative postnatal, perinatal, and fetal sources of MSCs appear to have different osteogenic capacities, but have not been systematically(More)
Several diseases of the nervous system are characterized by neurodegeneration and death in childhood. Conventional medicine is ineffective, but fetal or neonatal gene therapy may provide an alternative route to treatment. We evaluated the ability of single-stranded and self-complementary adeno-associated virus pseudotype 2/9 (AAV2/9) to transduce the(More)
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to offer a virtually unlimited source of chondrogenic cells for use in cartilage repair and regeneration. We have recently shown that expandable chondrogenic cells can be derived from hESCs under selective growth factor-responsive conditions. In this study, we explore the potential of these hESC-derived(More)
First-trimester fetal blood contains a readily expandable population of stem cells, human fetal mesenchymal stem cells (hfMSCs), which might be exploited for autologous intrauterine gene therapy. We investigated the self-renewal and differentiation of hfMSCs after transduction with onco-retroviral and lentiviral vectors. After transduction with either a(More)
A case is reported of early onset ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) after gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) trigger for final oocyte maturation in a GnRH antagonist protocol. The use of GnRHa in place of HCG as a trigger for final oocyte maturation in an antagonist IVF cycle has been proposed as a method for preventing OHSS in predicted(More)
Fetal cells enter maternal blood during pregnancy and persist in women with autoimmune disease. The frequency of subsequent fetomaternal microchimerism in healthy women and its cell type is unknown. To test the hypothesis that fetal mesenchymal stem cells persist in maternal organs, we studied female bone marrow and ribs. Male cells were identified by XY(More)