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This study investigates the effects of the Commonwealth of Virginia's ban on direct wine shipments from out-of-state sellers on wine prices and variety available to consumers in the greater McLean, Virginia area. Our results indicate that Virginia's direct shipment ban reduces the varieties of wine available to consumers and prevents consumers from(More)
State regulations affect various aspects of the contractual relationships between alcohol producers, distributors, and retailers. State laws governing the beer industry mandate that brewers grant wholesalers exclusive territories, prohibit exclusive dealing contracts between brewers and wholesalers, and restrict brewers' ability to terminate wholesalers.(More)
In the wake of Granholm v. Heald, numerous states passed new laws to regulate interstate direct shipment of alcohol that would seem to contradict the spirit, if not the explicit content, of the Commerce Clause. We build on existing scholarship analyzing the empirical impacts of direct shipment barriers to identify how these new laws are likely to influence(More)
Sam Papenfuss Congressional Budget Office *The analysis and conclusions expressed in this paper are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as those of the Congressional Budget Office. Abstract We consider why some educational institutions choose for-profit corporate status. For-profit educational institutions are prominent where the content of(More)
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