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The objective of this study was to determine the effect the source of added nitrite and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) had on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat (RTE) sliced ham. Use of 600MPa HHP for 3min resulted in an immediate 3.9-4.3log CFU/g reduction in L. monocytogenes numbers, while use of 400MPa HHP (3min) provided less than(More)
Inescapable foot shock in rats caused profound analgesia that was antagonized by naloxone or dexamethasone when shock was delivered intermittently for 30 minutes, but not when it was delivered continuously for 3 minutes. Thus, depending only on its temporal characteristics, foot-shock stress appears to activate opioid or nonopioid analgesia mechanisms.(More)
Portions of the brain stem seem normally to inhibit pain. In man and laboratory animals these brain areas and pathways from them to spinal sensory circuits can be activated by focal stimulation. Endogenous opioids appear to be implicated although separate nonopioid mechanisms are also evident. Stress seems to be a natural stimulus triggering pain(More)
The few studies analyzing somatotopic organization of stimulation-produced antinociception (SPA) from the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) have reported contradictory results. In the present study, the distribution of SPA on the hindquarters was assessed by measuring the threshold for inhibition of withdrawal reflexes to noxious heat applied to the hindpaws(More)
Growth of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated for up to 182 days after inoculation on ready-to-eat (RTE) sliced ham and turkey breast formulated with sodium nitrite (0 or 200 ppm), sodium chloride (1.8% or 2.4%), and treated (no treatment or 600 MPa) with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). HHP at 600 MPa for 3 min resulted in a 3.85-4.35 log CFU/g reduction(More)
This study compares stimulation-produced analgesia (SPA) elicited from two different midline regions of the midbrain of the rat. Dorsal electrode placements were in the caudal periaqueductal gray matter; ventral placements lay within or subjacent to the dorsal raphe n. SPA thresholds were measured by the tail-flick method both during and immediately after(More)
We previously found that the opiate antagonist, naloxone, partially blocks stimulation-produced analgesia (SPA) elicited from ventral but not dorsal regions of the medial midbrain in rats. The present study compares the effects of n. raphe magnus (NRM) lesions on SPA from these same two midbrain areas. SPA thresholds were measured with the tail-flick method(More)
Stress has been shown capable of differentially activating opioid- and non-opioid-mediated endogenous analgesia systems. In this study, the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, scopolamine, but not the centrally inactive methylscopolamine, blocks opioid, but not non-opioid stress analgesia. Additionally, naltrexone, an opiate antagonist, attenuates analgesia(More)
Exposure to inescapable footshock stress causes potent analgesia in the rat. According to several criteria, prolonged, intermittent footshock elicits analgesia mediated by opioid peptides, whereas brief, continuous footshock produces non-opioid analgesia. We now report that these neurochemically discrete forms of stress analgesia also have different(More)