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Short-term changes in activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system are routinely assessed by measuring glucocorticoid or metabolite concentrations in plasma, saliva, urine, or feces. However, there are no current methods for determining long-term (i.e., weeks or months) activity of this system. Herein, we describe the development and(More)
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or "Ecstasy") is a popular recreational drug among adolescents that is often taken primarily on weekends. The goals of this study were to develop a model of the typical intermittent pattern of human MDMA use in periadolescent rats and to determine the behavioral consequences of MDMA exposure in this model. Male(More)
Adult animals treated with high doses of MDMA ("ecstasy") either on a single day or for several consecutive days show numerous behavioral changes as well as persistent reductions in brain serotonin (5-HT) concentrations and 5-HT transporter (SERT) protein expression. However, such dosing regimens do not adequately mimic the intermittent use patterns(More)
To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3-19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled in 1994-2006. The hair was chosen as matrix as it(More)
By conferring allele-specific transcriptional activity on the 5-HT transporter gene promoter in humans, the 5-HT transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) influences a constellation of personality traits related to anxiety and increases the risk for neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders. Here we have analyzed the(More)
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy') is a popular recreational drug used worldwide. This study aimed to determine the effects of this compound on the expression of nerve terminal serotonergic markers in rats. Experiment 1 investigated MDMA-induced changes in levels of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2(More)
Numerous stressors are routinely encountered by wild-living primates (e.g., food scarcity, predation, aggressive interactions, and parasitism). Although many of these stressors are eliminated in laboratory environments, other stressors may be present in that access to space and social partners is often restricted. Stress affects many physiological systems(More)
We investigated the characteristics of cocainelike binding sites in rat placenta using [125I]RTI-55. [3H]paroxetine binding and immunocytochemical staining for serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] and for the 5-HT transporter were also used to obtain evidence for rat placental 5-HT uptake. [125I]RTI-55 saturation analyses with membranes from normal(More)
Individually housed rhesus monkeys sometimes spontaneously develop self-injurious behavior (SIB) in the form of self-directed biting that, on occasion, results in severe tissue damage and mutilation. We previously demonstrated lower levels of plasma cortisol in rhesus monkeys with a history of self-wounding (SW) when compared to non-wounders (NW).(More)
Rats were adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham-operated (SHAM) on the 11th day of life and subsequent brain development (cerebrum and cerebellum) studied in terms of tissue weight and biochemical composition. Measured at about 65 days of age, early ADX subjects had significantly heavier brains (in terms of both wet and dry weights) than SHAMs, despite being(More)