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Short-term changes in activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system are routinely assessed by measuring glucocorticoid or metabolite concentrations in plasma, saliva, urine, or feces. However, there are no current methods for determining long-term (i.e., weeks or months) activity of this system. Herein, we describe the development and(More)
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or "Ecstasy") is a popular recreational drug among adolescents that is often taken primarily on weekends. The goals of this study were to develop a model of the typical intermittent pattern of human MDMA use in periadolescent rats and to determine the behavioral consequences of MDMA exposure in this model. Male(More)
Adult animals treated with high doses of MDMA ("ecstasy") either on a single day or for several consecutive days show numerous behavioral changes as well as persistent reductions in brain serotonin (5-HT) concentrations and 5-HT transporter (SERT) protein expression. However, such dosing regimens do not adequately mimic the intermittent use patterns(More)
To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3-19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled in 1994-2006. The hair was chosen as matrix as it(More)
Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is commonly assessed by measuring glucocorticoids such as cortisol (CORT). For many years, CORT was obtained primarily from blood plasma or urine, whereas later approaches added saliva and feces for noninvasive monitoring of HPA functioning. Despite the value of all these sample matrices for(More)
We investigated the characteristics of cocainelike binding sites in rat placenta using [125I]RTI-55. [3H]paroxetine binding and immunocytochemical staining for serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] and for the 5-HT transporter were also used to obtain evidence for rat placental 5-HT uptake. [125I]RTI-55 saturation analyses with membranes from normal(More)
Individually housed rhesus monkeys sometimes spontaneously develop self-injurious behavior (SIB) in the form of self-directed biting that, on occasion, results in severe tissue damage and mutilation. We previously demonstrated lower levels of plasma cortisol in rhesus monkeys with a history of self-wounding (SW) when compared to non-wounders (NW).(More)
Rats were adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham-operated (SHAM) on the 11th day of life and subsequent brain development (cerebrum and cerebellum) studied in terms of tissue weight and biochemical composition. Measured at about 65 days of age, early ADX subjects had significantly heavier brains (in terms of both wet and dry weights) than SHAMs, despite being(More)
Rats were adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham-operated (SHAM) on the 11th day of life and killed on days 35-36, 63, or 151-153 for the isolation of cerebral myelin from each animal. Despite having lower overall body weights, ADX rats had heavier cerebra than SHAM control rats at all ages. Mean cerebral weight increases were 10.0% at day 35-36, 15.3% at day 63,(More)