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Short-term changes in activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system are routinely assessed by measuring glucocorticoid or metabolite concentrations in plasma, saliva, urine, or feces. However, there are no current methods for determining long-term (i.e., weeks or months) activity of this system. Herein, we describe the development and(More)
Cortisol levels serve as an index of pituitary-adrenal activity in nonhuman primates. In adult monkeys, cortisol is normally measured in blood (typically requiring restraint or sedation) or urine (reflecting a state rather than point estimate). In contrast, saliva collection is less invasive than drawing blood and allows for repeated sampling within a short(More)
This research determined whether sensitization (or tolerance) to the behavioral effects of cocaine in rat pups would occur following repeated cocaine administration. Rats were injected daily with 20 mg/kg of cocaine HCl s.c. from postnatal day 1 to day 10, injected with saline vehicle only, or left untreated during this period. On day 11, animals from each(More)
BACKGROUND Self-injurious behavior (SIB), a disorder that afflicts many individuals within both clinical and nonclinical populations, has been linked to states of heightened stress and arousal. However, there are no published longitudinal data on the relationship between increases in stress and changes in the incidence of SIB. This study investigated the(More)
To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3-19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled in 1994-2006. The hair was chosen as matrix as it(More)
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine damages fine serotonergic fibers and nerve terminals in adult organisms. Developing animals seem to be less susceptible to this effect, possibly due to a lack of drug-induced hyperthermia. We tested this hypothesis by producing hyperthermia in neonatal rats for 2h after each of twice-daily MDMA (10 mg/kg s.c.) or saline(More)
Adult animals treated with high doses of MDMA ("ecstasy") either on a single day or for several consecutive days show numerous behavioral changes as well as persistent reductions in brain serotonin (5-HT) concentrations and 5-HT transporter (SERT) protein expression. However, such dosing regimens do not adequately mimic the intermittent use patterns(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal cocaine treatment on behavioral responsivity to a cocaine challenge on postnatal day (PD) 11. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected s.c. with 40 mg/kg/day of cocaine (20 mg/kg twice daily) from gestational day 11 to 20. Saline-control females received saline injections and were(More)
High or repeated doses of the recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or 'Ecstasy') produce long-lasting deficits in several markers of serotonin (5-HT) system integrity and also alter behavioral function. However, it is not yet clear whether MDMA-induced serotonergic neurotoxicity is responsible for these behavioral changes or whether(More)