Jerrold P Weiss

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Host proinflammatory responses to minute amounts of endotoxins derived from many Gram-negative bacteria require the interaction of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), CD14, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MD-2. Optimal sensitivity to endotoxin requires an ordered series of endotoxin-protein and protein-protein interactions. At substoichiometric(More)
LBP [LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-binding protein] and BPI (bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein) are components of the immune system that have been principally studied in mammals for their involvement in defence against bacterial pathogens. These proteins share a basic architecture and residues involved in LPS binding. Putative orthologues, i.e.(More)
The bactericidal/permeability increasing (BPI) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding (LBP) proteins are closely related two-domain proteins in which LPS binding is mediated by the NH(2)-terminal domain. To further define the role of the COOH-terminal domain of these proteins in delivery of LPS to specific host acceptors, we have compared interactions of LBP,(More)
The expression of inducible antimicrobial peptides, such as human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) by epithelia, comprises a component of innate pulmonary defenses. We hypothesized that HBD-2 induction in airway epithelia is linked to pattern recognition receptors such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We found that primary cultures of well-differentiated human(More)
Studies with purified aggregates of endotoxin have revealed the importance of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP)-dependent extraction and transfer of individual endotoxin molecules to CD14 in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent cell activation. Endotoxin is normally embedded in the outer membrane of intact Gram-negative bacteria and shed membrane(More)
Successful host defense against bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (SA) depends on a prompt response by circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Stimulated PMN create in their phagosomes an environment inhospitable to most ingested bacteria. Granules that fuse with the phagosome deliver an array of catalytic and noncatalytic antimicrobial(More)
Lipoteichoic and wall teichoic acids (TA) are highly anionic cell envelope-associated polymers containing repeating polyglycerol/ribitol phosphate moieties. Substitution of TA with D-alanine is important for modulation of many cell envelope-dependent processes, such as activity of autolytic enzymes, binding of divalent cations, and susceptibility to innate(More)
Bacterial LPS is a pluripotent agonist for PMNs. Although it does not activate the NADPH-dependent oxidase directly, LPS renders PMNs more responsive to other stimuli, a phenomenon known as "priming." Since the mechanism of LPS-dependent priming is incompletely understood, we investigated its effects on assembly and activation of the NADPH oxidase. LPS(More)
Potent TLR4-dependent cell activation by Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin depends on sequential endotoxin?protein and protein?protein interactions with LBP, CD14, MD-2 and TLR4. LBP and CD14 combine, in an albumin-dependent fashion, to extract single endotoxin molecules from purified endotoxin aggregates (E(agg)) or the bacterial outer membrane and form(More)
The remarkable infectiousness of Francisella tularensis suggests that the bacterium efficiently evades innate immune responses that typically protect the host during its continuous exposure to environmental and commensal microbes. In our studies of the innate immune response to F. tularensis, we have observed that, unlike the live vaccine strain (LVS) of F.(More)