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Calorie restriction extends lifespan and produces a metabolic profile desirable for treating diseases of ageing such as type 2 diabetes. SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, is a principal modulator of pathways downstream of calorie restriction that produce beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic SIRT1(More)
The evolution of the human mitochondrial genome is characterized by the emergence of ethnically distinct lineages or haplogroups. Nine European, seven Asian (including Native American), and three African mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have been identified previously on the basis of the presence or absence of a relatively small number of(More)
Hormones mobilize intracellular second messengers and initiate signalling cascades involving protein kinases and phosphatases, which are often spatially compartmentalized by anchoring proteins to increase signalling specificity. These scaffold proteins may themselves be modulated by hormones. In adipocytes, stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors increases(More)
Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FAs), DHA and EPA, exert anti-inflammatory effects, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) functions as an omega-3 FA receptor/sensor. Stimulation of GPR120 with omega-3 FAs or a chemical agonist causes broad anti-inflammatory effects in monocytic RAW 264.7 cells(More)
In adipose tissue, muscle, liver and macrophages, signaling by the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is a determinant of insulin sensitivity and this receptor mediates the insulin-sensitizing effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs). As PPAR-γ is also expressed in neurons, we generated mice with neuron-specific Pparg(More)
Glucose flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway leads to the post-translational modification of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins by O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). This tandem system serves as a nutrient sensor to couple systemic metabolic status to cellular regulation of signal transduction, transcription, and protein degradation.(More)
It is well known that the ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3-FAs; also known as n-3 fatty acids) can exert potent anti-inflammatory effects. Commonly consumed as fish products, dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals, ω-3-FAs have a number of health benefits ascribed to them, including reduced plasma triglyceride levels, amelioration of atherosclerosis and increased(More)
Emerging evidence suggests that inflammation provides a link between obesity and insulin resistance. The noncanonical IκB kinases IKKε and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) are induced in liver and fat after high fat diet by NF-κB activation, and in turn initiate a program of counter-inflammation that preserves energy storage. Here, we report the discovery of a(More)
Obesity-induced insulin resistance is a major factor in the etiology of type 2 diabetes, and Jun kinases (JNKs) are key negative regulators of insulin sensitivity in the obese state. Activation of JNKs (mainly JNK1) in insulin target cells results in phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) at serine and threonine residues that inhibit insulin(More)
Macrophage-mediated inflammation is a key component of insulin resistance; however, the initial events of monocyte migration to become tissue macrophages remain poorly understood. We report a new method to quantitate in vivo macrophage tracking (i.e., blood monocytes from donor mice) labeled ex vivo with fluorescent PKH26 dye and injected into recipient(More)