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We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations based on multidimensional and comprehensive characterization of more than 500 glioblastoma tumors (GBMs). We identify several novel mutated genes as well as complex rearrangements of signature receptors, including EGFR and PDGFRA. TERT promoter mutations are shown to correlate with elevated mRNA(More)
Repeated measures designs involving nonorthogonal variables are being used with increasing frequency in cognitive psychology. Researchers usually analyze the data from such designs inappropriately, probably because the designs are not discussed in standard textbooks on regression. Two commonly used approaches to analyzing repeated measures designs are(More)
Three experiments showed that reading about a character's actions can reactivate a goal of the character stated earlier in the passage and backgrounded by intervening material. Subjects were slower to read a line describing an action that was inconsistent with a goal of the protagonist than they were to read about an action that was consistent with the(More)
In 3 experiments, the authors investigated factors that influence accessibility of backgrounded goal information. Participants read texts consisting of 2 episodes. In the 1st episode, the goal was satisfied or unsatisfied. Following a statement of goal satisfaction or goal postponement, there was a 2nd unrelated episode. After completion of the 2nd episode,(More)
Four experiments were conducted to examine the extent to which readers construct elaborative inferences on-line during reading. In Experiment 1, gaze durations were measured while subjects read anaphors to target antecedents that referenced a particular category member either explicitly or implicitly. When the context strongly suggested a particular(More)
In 4 experiments, the authors investigated the accessibility of potential antecedents that were either referents or nonreferents of categorical anaphors using several methodologies. In 2 preliminary experiments, using an immediate probe recognition task, the authors replicated previous findings of inhibition for nonreferents following categorical anaphors.(More)
An implicit assumption of several causal reasoning models is that readers adopt the goals of a narrative's protagonist during text comprehension. In apparent violation of this assumption, readers participating in Experiment 1 of the present study drew inferences relevant to a protagonist's goal even when that goal was already satisfied from the perspective(More)
An on-line word naming probe was used to test whether information presented earlier in a text, and then backgrounded by several sentences, would be reinstated when Ss were required to understand the cause of a currently processed action or event. In Experiment 1, Ss named a probe word that represented an earlier-mentioned cause more quickly when it followed(More)
We used a probe procedure to show that a goal established earlier in a text is active in memory at the point of its achievement. An initial experiment demonstrated that a goal category (began an investigation to nab the THIEF) is accessible, relative to a control condition, following the processing of a goal-achievement sentence (had the PURSER brought to(More)