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Longitudinal study of 2 cohorts of children selected in the second or third year of life to be extremely cautious and shy (inhibited) or fearless and outgoing (uninhibited) to unfamiliar events revealed preservation of these 2 behavioral qualities through the sixth year of life. Additionally, more of the inhibited children showed signs of activation in 1 or(More)
Infants with an inhibited temperament tend to develop into children who avoid people, objects, and situations that are novel or unfamiliar, whereas uninhibited children spontaneously approach novel persons, objects, and situations. Behavioral and physiological features of these two temperamental categories are moderately stable from infancy into early(More)
  • J Kagan
  • 1966
3rd-grade children previously classified as either reflective or impulsive were administered a serial learning task under 3 different conditions. After administration of 2 lists, 1 group was told their performance was poor, a 2nd was told that the next lists were difficult, and controls were given no special communication. Impulsive Ss in all groups(More)
A review of behavioral and neurobiological data on mood and mood regulation as they pertain to an understanding of mood disorders is presented. Four approaches are considered: 1) behavioral and cognitive; 2) neurobiological; 3) computational; and 4) developmental. Within each of these four sections, we summarize the current status of the field and present(More)
BACKGROUND As a prelude to future studies of subjects with different temperaments, we sought to develop a probe to measure differential amygdalar responses to novel versus familiar stimuli. Prior neuroimaging studies of the amygdala in humans to date have focused principally on responses to emotional stimuli, primarily aversive, rather than to novelty per(More)
Behavioral inhibition is a laboratory-based temperamental category by the tendency to constrict behavior in unfamiliar situations and assumed to reflect low thresholds of limbic arousal. We previously found behavioral inhibition prevalent in the offspring of parents with panic disorder and agoraphobia. In this report, we examined the psychiatric correlates(More)
This paper considers the influence of temperamental factors on the development of anxious symptoms in children and adolescents. About 20 percent of healthy children are born with a temperamental bias that predisposes them to be highly reactive to unfamiliar stimulation as infants and to be fearful of or avoidant to unfamiliar events and people as young(More)